b'Endnotes 14Donna K. Nagata, Intergenerational Effects 28George Q. Flynn, The Draft: 19401973 (Law- 46Houston Hall University of Pennsylvania presents of the Japanese American Internment, in rence: University Press of Kansas, 1993): 142. An Art Showing of the work of Munio Makuuchi International Handbook of Multigenerational 29Takahashi interview. (January 18February 6, 1967). Exhibition invita-1Andrew and Renee Balkin, interview with Legacies of Trauma, ed. Yael Danieli (New York:tion. Munio Makuuchi personal papers, courtesy Aprile Gallant, July 24, 2018; Josef LaVigne,Plenum Press, 1998), 13334. For more infor- 30Munio Makuuchi quoted in Amy Ling, Yellow Light:of Jamie and Constance Makuuchi. interview with Aprile Gallant, March 19, 2018;mation on this study, see Nagata, Legacy The Flowering of Asian American Arts (Phila- Roger Shimomura, telephone conversationof Injustice: Exploring the Cross-generational delphia: Temple University Press, 1999): 192. 47Makuuchi, What Price Education? Etc. inwith Aprile Gallant, January 9, 2019; Yayoi LenaImpact of the Japanese American internmentFrom Lake Minidoka to Lake Mendota, 163.Winfrey, Munio Makuuchi: Remembering the(New York: Plenum Press, 1993). 31Rajkhet Dirzhud-Rashid, A Man of Many Faces:48Makuuchi, Spartan Samurai, in From Lake JA Poet and Artist, 19342000, IMDiversity.com,Japanese-American Artist Speaks on Need forMinidoka to Lake Mendota, 164.July 23, 2000, http://www.iminorities.com/asian/ 15Jonathan Hughes, A Personal Preface: Cultural Togetherness, Northwest Ethnic News arts/yayoimunio0600.html.The Camp at Minidoka (in part), in Bessie M.(Seattle), December 1994. 49Mochizuki, Former internee works out pathos Shrontz Roberts-Wright, ed., Hunt for through his art.2Munio Makuuchi, From Lake Minidoka to Idaho: Evacuees, 19421945 and Homesteaders,32Yutaka (John) Takahashi, Road Signs for the Lake Mendota and Back to the Northwest Sea.19471949 T.P. Minidoka Prisoner of War CampTrue Artist, unpublished manuscript, 1961. 50Munio Makuuchi, Mystical Mythical Magical Unpublished manuscript (1993). This manu- (POW), 19421945 (Kimberly, ID: Self-published,Munio Makuuchi personal papers, courtesyMystery Tour: My Assthetics, master of fine arts script exists in multiple versions; the version1994), 135. Jamie and Constance Makuuchi. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1975, cited throughout is held in Special Collections Munio Makuuchi personal papers, courtesy at the Smith College Libraries. 16Camp improvised to accommodate pupils, 33Ken Mochizuki, Former internee works outJamie and Constance Makuuchi. in Hughes, A Personal Preface, 141. pathos through his art, Northwest Nikkei 10 3R. L. Polk & Co., Polks Seattle City Directory(October 1994). 51Mary Ellen Haskett, Outreach for Asian(Seattle: R. L. Polk & Co., 1940): 2230. 17Arthur Kleinkopf (Superintendent of Education,students, The Cardinal (University of Wisconsin, Minidoka Relocation Center), Diary, 19421947,34Mollie Goldstrom, Mauricio Lasansky and Madison), September 1974, 12.4Nicole Grant, White Supremacy and the Alienunpublished manuscript, Robert Sims Collectionthe First Generation: Lee Chesney, BarbaraLand Laws of Washington State, The Seattleon Minidoka and Japanese Americans, Box 12,Fumagalli, Arthur Levine, Janet K. Ruttenberg, 52William Wei, The Asian American Movement (Phila- Civil Rights and Labor History Project, accessedFolders 2324, Boise State University Specialand Donn Steward (Iowa City: University of delphia: Temple University Press, 1993), 30.December 6, 2018, https://depts.washington. Collections and Archives. Iowa, 2014), 6.edu/civilr/alien_land_laws.htm.53Makuuchi, Mystical Mythical Magical Mystery 18See Floyd Cheung, Protest and Prophecy: The35Joann Moser, Atelier 17: A 50th Anniversary Retro- Tour, 7.5Louis Fiset, Camp Harmony: Seattles JapaneseDefiant Poetry of Munio Makuuchi, in this volume. spective Exhibition (Madison: Elvehjem Art Center, Americans and the Puyallup Assembly Center University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1977), 67. 54Makuuchi, Mystical Mythical Magical Mystery (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois19Barbara Johns, The Hope of Another Spring:Tour, 24.Press, 2009): 5758. Takuichi Fujii, Artist and Wartime Witness 36Mauricio Lasansky, On Technical Processes(Seattle and London: University of Washingtonin Printmaking, College Art Journal 9, no. 255AGB ENCORE (1997) included etchings by 6Fiset, Camp Harmony, 87. Press, 2017): 88. (Winter 19491950): 2034. Andrew Balkin, Warrington Colescott, Munio Makuuchi, Gladys Nilsson, Jim Nutt, Ed Pas-7Masao Watanabe talks about how he felt 20The Last of the J/A Mohicans, in Makuuchi,37Virginia Irwin, A New Life for Hiroshima Girls,chke, Jeb Prazak, Krishna Reddy, Alan Shields, upon arriving in Puyallup. Densho Encyclo- From Lake Minidoka to Lake Mendota, 57. The Everyday Magazine in the St. Louis Post-John Wilde, and Karl Wirsum. The Wisconsin pedia, filmed 1998, video, 00:02:44, accessedDispatch (St. Louis, MO), September 9, 1956, 10. Sesquicentennial Portfolio (2001) included work December 6, 2018, https://encyclopedia.densho. 21Fiset, Camp Harmony, 9496. by Andrew Balkin, Nancy Ekholm Burkert, org/sources/en-denshovh-wmasao-01-0015-1. 38Eliot Nusbaum, What Teaching Taught Warrington Colescott, Michelle Grabner, Susan 22James Tanaka, interview by Aprile Gallant,Mauricio Lasansky, The Des Moines Register,Hunt-Wulkowicz, Martin Levine, Munio Makuu-8Harold F. Osborne, Japs at Hunt Keep RecordMarch 15, 2018.December 30, 1984. chi, Frances Myers, Bruce Nauman, Gladys Clean First Year, The Post Register (Idaho Falls,23Makuuchi, Religious Journey or Plight and39Lasansky, On Technical Processes in Nilsson, Ed Paschke, Fred Stonehouse, Tom Idaho), June 2, 1943, 10.Fright? in From Lake Minidoka to Lake Mendota,Printmaking, 2034. Uttech, John Wilde, and William Wiley.9Harriet Takahashi, interview with Ariella Frish- 165.56Lee Baumgard, Makuuchis Ethereal Shocks. berg, April 2012, transcribed by the interviewer.40Andrew Renard, From the Cave: The Art of24John and Mary Takahashi were confirmed onMunio Makuuchi, Nit and Wit Magazine of theThe Daily Cardinal (Madison, WI), November 14, 10Munio Makuuchi, Bone Dry Dry Run, in April 30, 1947; Howard was confirmed on AprilArts (November 1984): 46. 1974. From Lake Minidoka to Lake Mendota, 57. 10, 1949; Harriet was confirmed on May 6, 1951.57Warrington Colescott, telephone conversation Email from Becky Barth, Administrative Assis- 41Munio H. Makuuchi, A Technical Analysis of 11Commission on Wartime Relocation and In- tant, Immanuel Lutheran Church, Twin Falls,Goyas Disasters of War Series, masters thesis,with Aprile Gallant, July 25, 2018. ternment of Civilians, Personal Justice Denied:Idaho, to Aprile Gallant, February 7, 2018.University of Iowa, August 1964. Microfilm, Spe- 58Balkin interview. Report on the Commission on Wartime Relocationcial Collections, The University of Iowa Librariesand Internment of Civilians (Washington, DC: The25This is recorded on his application for 59Warrington Colescott and Arthur Hove,Civil Liberties Public Education Fund; Seattle:admission to Concordia. 42Gene Raffensperger, Iowans are Digging aProgressive Printmakers: Wisconsin Artists and University of Washington Press, 1997), 300. Huge Cavern Under the Cornland, The Desthe Print Renaissance (Madison: The University 26Ernest W. Tiegs, Willis W. Clark, and Louis P.Moines Register, September 29, 1963, 67. of Wisconsin Press, 1999), 18.12Makuuchi, From Lake Minidoka to Lake Mendota.Thorpe. The California Test of Personality,The Journal of Educational Research 35, no. 243Goldstrom, Mauricio Lasansky and the First 60Colescott and Hove, Progressive Printmakers, 35.13Makuuchi quoted in Mayumi Otsuma, Munio(October 1941): 102. Generation, 6.Makuuchi: Portrait of a Japanese-American61Takahashi interview.Artist, The Edge (Madison, WI)(May 1991): 8. 27Makuuchi, At a Strict* Lutheran M. S. Prep44Goldstrom, Mauricio Lasansky and the FirstSchool, in From Lake Minidoka to Lake Mendota:Generation, 5. 62LaVigne interview.163. 45Renard, From the Cave, 46. 63Balkin interview.74 75'