b'further compounded by his incarceration. His non-native status excluded him from the emerging power structures among inmates within the camp, as the American-born Nisei were more often chosen by the camp administrators for positions of leadership. 11His decision to work outside the camp may have been a way for him to reclaim his agency, but it also absented him from his family. Makuuchi remembered his father as a strict disciplinarian who was particularly critical of his son. Although they frequently clashed, their relationship was complex. Many of Makuuchis poems are filled with Pa sez aphorisms (phrases that are sometimes repeated as titles for his prints). 12Of all the members of his immediate family, John Takahashi looms largest in both his sons images and his writings. The only image depicting his father directly, John Yutaka Takahashis Journey (Pa)(fig. 8), was made early in Makuuchis career. It depicts the subject dressed in a heavy shirt, jacket, and ball cap. His face is built of deeply etched lines, and he stares off toward the right with a pensive gaze, his right hand on his chin and left touching his shirt collar. The figure emerges from a dark, heavily textured background and is framed by a grid of deeply scored lines that form a screen pattern. Circular arcing lines, extending from the bottom to both sides, form the arms and torso. There is a deep, insular tension in the work. The focus on the face and the rough textures used to build his features make it clear that the journey is psychological as well as physical.Most of Makuuchis prints and poems relating to his experiences at Camp Harmony and Minidoka were executed later in his life. This is not surprising. The focus for many Japanese American families following the war was to re-establish themselves as quickly as possible. While many were angry at their treatment, there was also a deep sense of shame and the strong desire to move forward. For someone who was a child during the incarceration, the effects of this experience were likely to be sublimated and long-lasting, and deeply affected by the attitudes of the parents. Makuuchis later memories of his life at camp were of the pervasive tension and anxiety of not knowing what would happen next: The values, authorities, family relationshipseverything was collapsing . . . and my parents often quarreled and I was scared all the time. 13Scholar Donna Nagatas Sansei Project, a study of the ripple effects of the incarceration through generations of Japanese Americans, lays out compelling evidence for the continuing history of trauma experienced by individuals whose parents were imprisoned. 14This study, however, does not address the experience of children who were incarcerated. Published estimates of the number of children FIGURE \x06 John Yutaka Takahashis Journey (Pa) CHECKLIST #1118'