b'Endnotes series in the 1980s and 1990s. See RogerShimomura, William W. Lew, Roger Daniels,and Rudolph E. Lee Gallery, Minidoka Revisited: The Paintings of Roger Shimomura (Clemson, SC: 1Although some prefer the term incarcerationLee Gallery, Clemson University, 2005). camp to underscore the true function of those government-run facilities, I employ intern- 11Roger Shimomura to Margo Machida, January ment to foreground the historic specificity19, 2019.ofthisevent. To not use the commonly cited term tends to relativize perception of the 12Makuuchi to Margo Machida, ca. late 1980s. C H RO N O LOGYepisode, given how the widespread mass 13For a discussion of Makuuchis poems Diamondsimprisonment of civilians in concentrationin the Sun and Diamonds are Forever, see Floyd camps increasingly became a salient feature Cheung, Protest and Prophecy: The Defiant of the twentieth century. Poetry of Munio Makuuchi, in this volume.CLAIRE HAUG 202See Karin M. Higa, The View from Within 14Thanks to Professor Yan Yang, Borough of in The View from Within: Japanese American ArtManhattan Community College, CUNY, for from the Internment Camps, 19421945 (Lostranslating the Japanese text. The two Japanese Angeles: Japanese American National Museum,artists cited in this work are: Kawai Gyokudo UCLA Wight Art Gallery, and UCLA Asian Amer- (18731957) and Kimura Busan (18761942). 1882:Chinese Exclusion Act signed into law. 1906:President Theodore Roosevelt intervenes ican Studies Center, 1992), 2144, and NorikoThe act bans immigration from China to the in an attempt by the San Francisco SchoolGamblin, Relocations and Revisions: The Japa- 15Munio Makuuchi, interview by Matthew United States for ten years (it is eventuallyBoard to compel Japanese school children to nese-American Internment Reconsidered (LongKaufman in Madison, WI, video by Spencerrenewed indefinitely) and prevents Chineseattend segregated Chinese schools. In exchange Beach, CA: Long Beach Museum of Art, 1992). Kaufman, ca. 1993. residents in the United States from becomingfor rescinding this order, Roosevelt agrees to 3See Adrienne Ip, The Golden Eagle: An 16Tom Nakashima, unpublished artists state- naturalized citizens. The law remains in effectcurb Japanese immigration. Interview with Artist-Poet Munio Makuuchi,ment, 2019, for Resilience: A Sansei Sense ofuntil 1943 and sets an important precedentTahoma West 1 (Autumn 1997): 2737. Legacy, curated by Gail Enns (an exhibition infor future anti-Asian legal discrimination. This1907:Gentlemans Agreement between the progress). Nakashimas uncle, the renownedact also opens the door for increased immigra- United States and Japan. Japan agrees to limit 4Munio Makuuchi to Margo Machida, ca. latewoodworker George Nakashima (19051990),the number of visas issued to Japanese citizens.1980s. For a discussion of trauma and socialand his family were imprisoned at Minidoka.tion from Japan to replace Chinese labor. memory in visual art, see Margo Machida,Another uncle, Ted Nakashima, was incarcer- May 1, 1893:Opening of the Worlds Columbian1912:Sumie (Mary) Makuuchi is born in Seattle.Unsettled Visions: Contemporary Asian Americanated at Tule Lake Relocation Center in northern Artists and the Social Imaginary (Durham andCalifornia. Exposition in Chicago. The Japanese pavilion, a1913:California Alien Land Law of 1913 forbids London: Duke University Press, 2009): 120193. hand-built reproduction of an eleventh-centuryaliens ineligible for citizenship from owning 5Roger Shimomura to Margo Machida, January17Tom Nakashima, Speculations by Tom Buddhist pavilion known as Ho-o-den, is widelyproperty. Due to statutes specifically prohibiting Nakashima in Tom Nakashima: New Paintingsheralded as a highlight of the fair. It promotes 4, 2019. Shimomura met Makuuchi at a College(New York: Bernice Steinbaum Gallery, 1991).interest in Japanese visual art and culture in theChinese and Japanese individuals from applying Art Association conference in Chicago and See also Tom Nakashima and Washingtonfor naturalization, this law essentially discrimi-visited him during annual trips to Seattle. Project for the Arts, Tom Nakashima : 19841990United States and improves American attitudesnates against Asians. (Washington, DC: Washington Project for thetoward Japanese culture, if not immigrants. 6Roger Shimomura to Margo Machida, JanuaryArts, 1990).1917:Yutaka (John) Takahashi immigrates to12, 2019. 190405, Russo-Japanese War:A conflict the United States.7See Jimmy Tsutomu Mirikitani, New York18Ip, The Golden Eagle, 33. between Russia and Japan over territory inUniversity Asian/Pacific/American Institute,19Ip, The Golden Eagle, 33. Korea. The Japanese victory in May 1905 stuns1920:Ozawa v. United States decided by the accessed January 25, 2019, http://apa.nyu.edu/ the world and signals Japans military might United States Supreme Court. This decisiongallery/mirikitani/index.html.20See I Wear a Mask Today, The Artistic Journey and territorial ambitions.reinforces the prohibition of Japanese-born of Yasuo KuniyoshiPostwar Imagery,immigrants becoming naturalized American 8See The Cats of Mirikitani, accessed January 28,Smithsonian American Art Museum, accessed1904:Munio Makuuchis grandfathers,2019,http://www.thecatsofmirikitani.com. January 28, 2019, https://2.americanart.si.edu/ Katsusake Takahashi and Matsutaro Makuuchi,citizens.9For examples of Mirikitanis work, see Jimmyexhibitions/online/kuniyoshi/1946-7-wear-mask- immigrate to the United States. 1924:The Immigration Act of 1924 prohibitsTsutomu Mirikitani, Smithsonian American today.cfm. Also see Tom Wolf, The Artisticfurther immigration from Japan. This violationArt Museum, accessed January 10, 2019,Journey of Yasuo Kuniyoshi in Tom Wolf, 1905, Taft-Katsura Memorandum:An under-https://americanart.si.edu/artist/jimmy-Elizabeth Broun, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, and Smithso- standing between US Secretary of War Williamof the previously established Gentlemenstsutomu-mirikitani-29289.nian American Art Museum, The Artistic Taft and Japanese Prime Minister Katsura TaroAgreement between the United States andJourney of Yasuo Kuniyoshi (Washington, DC:Japan increases tensions between the two10Entries from the personal diaries kept by Smithsonian American Art Museum, 2015), 75. regarding maintaining the balance of power innations. Roger Shimomuras grandmother, Toku Machida East Asia. Japan renounces any interest in the Shimomura, inspired several major bodies of21See Wolf, The Artistic Journey of Yasuo Philippines, and the United States agrees to sup- 1929:Japanese American Citizens League work, including the Diary and American DiaryKuniyoshi, 6162. port Japans protectorate status over Korea.(JACL) is founded.140 141'