b'Like the misunderstood monster Godzilla, Makuuchi was not welcome by most ofEndnotes 12Surrealism, Glossary of Poetic Terms, Poetry Foundation, accessed December 1, 2018, society, even though it was societys actions that created him. In a personal letterhttps://www.poetryfoundation.org/learn/glos-to art historian Margo Machida, Makuuchi described his work as psychodocu- 1He distanced himself from his father by adopt- sary-terms/surrealism.trauma drama. Indeed, Makuuchis childhood incarceration damaged his psycheing his mothers maiden name, Makuuchi, as his13George Morihiro, interview with Megan Asaka, own last name in 1959. For more on his earlyDensho Digital Archive, December 15 and 16, and inspired his art. His defiant visions in both print and poetry document theyears, please see Aprile Gallant, Defiant Lines:2005, http://ddr.densho.org/media/ddr- psychological and traumatic effects of incarceration on himself and his people.The Prints of Munio Makuuchi, in this volume. densho-1000/ddr-densho-1000-182-transcript-Hope might be found only in rediscovering a primal sense of common humanity2Mitsuye Yamada, Thirty Years Under, in b31f9dd672.htm. Makuuchi uses quotation Camp Notes (New Brunswick: Rutgers Universitymarks in his poem Our 4th of July to question and in realizing global connectedness in a world where ripples created by twothe governments intent, saying that incarcees Press, 1998), 31.stones dropped in a pond inevitably overlap across time and space.were surroundedprotectedguarded.3Bill Hosokawa, Nisei: The Quiet Americans 14G. M. Jensen, The Experience of Injustice: (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1969),Health Consequences of the Japanese American and William Petersen, Success Story, Japa- Internment(PhD diss., University of Colorado, nese-American Style, New York Times, January1998), Dissertation Abstracts International9, 1966. Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 4Harriet Takahashi, interview with Ariella 58(7-A), 2718.Frishberg, April 2012.15See Mary Ellen Solt, ed., Concrete Poetry:5Munio Makuuchi, interview, Spirit of the A World View (Bloomington: Indiana University Artist, filmed in Seattle, ca. 1993, transcribedPress, 1968).by Katarina Yuan, 2017. 16Milton Eisenhowers wartime newsreel6In the poem Dear Yamada/Inada, MakuuchiJapanese Relocation (Washington: Office ofaddresses poets Mitsuye Yamada and LawsonWar Information, Domestic Branch, BureauFusao Inada, saying Im your kinda Buddy /of Motion Pictures, 1943) told mainstream from Minidoka. Americans that Uncle Sam was protecting Japanese Americans, feeding them with7Wei Lu, Lawson Fusao Inada, in Greenwoodnutritious food, and offering them the chanceEncyclopedia of Asian American Literature, ed.to be pioneers on land that was raw, untamed, Guiyou Huang (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2009).but full of opportunity. Makuuchi did share a room with Frank Chin during their college days, but they seem not 17Amy Mass, Psychological Effects of theto have kept in touch. See Makuuchis poemCamps on Japanese Americans, in Japanese Middle East.Americans: From Relocation to Redress, ed.Roger Daniels, Sandra C. Taylor, and Harry H. L. 8Takahashi interview. Kitano (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 9Different versions of the typescript exist in vari- 1991), 161.ous university libraries. Different versions of the18Marilyn Chin, Revenge of the Mooncake Vixen:same poem recur even in the same typescript. A Manifesto in 41 Tales (New York: W. W. Norton I thank the musician Fred Ho for initially inviting& Co., 2009), 26.me to see his papers in Greenpoint, New York, where I discovered Makuuchis work.19Franca Bellarsi, Sex and the Body in Michael McClures Quest For the Mammal Self, in10Takahashi interview. This compliment was The Body and the Book: Writings on Poetry and related from an unnamed friend to MakuuchisSexuality, ed. Glennis Byron and Andrew J. sister, who explained that he took only oneSneddon (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, class, remarking, Oh my God, now my brother2008), 173.thinks hes a poet.20Bellarsi, Sex and the Body, 174.11Andr Breton quoted in Susan Rosenbaum, Exquisite Corpse: Surrealist Influence on the21Makuuchi, Mystical Mythical Magical Mystery American Poetry Scene, 19201960, inTheTour: My Assthetics (master of fine arts thesis, Oxford Handbook of Modern and ContemporaryUniversity of Wisconsin, 1975), 4.American Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).Heros End CHECKLIST #6126 127'