b'influenced by the strong trend toward multidimensionality in Nigerian contem-porary arta tendency for artists to work simultaneously in different creative fields such as painting, performance, music, or poetry. 71While Makuuchi had always painted, and had been experimenting with writing prior to his time in Nigeria, he approached these activities as separate pursuits, as they were often regarded in American academia. This is clear in the aesthetic difference between his MFA paintings and ongoing graphic work. It appears that Makuuchi began integrating his varied artistic pursuits prior to leaving Ife: his resume lists a 1982 exhibition at the University of Ife as including drypoints and drawings and a multi-media artistic happening introduced by [the Nigerian novelist and Nobel Prize winner] Wole Soyinka.Makuuchi left Nigeria in 1983, just prior to the December 31 coup, when the Second Republic was overthrown by the military, who cited economic decline and moral corruption as the primary reasons for their rebellion. 72In a letter to Andrew and Renee Balkin, dated 1st of the New Year, written from an undis-closed site in Europe, Makuuchi states that he felt he got out just in time. He further talks about visiting Atelier 17 in Paris, exhorts them to send him prints to sell, inquires about more printing, and asks about purchasing a vehicle for his return to Madison, remarking: Will have to go job-hunting in a year or two esp. if me & prints dont take off . . . two years of freedom to art then . . . ? broke again?73Makuuchis displacement from Nigeria was sudden, and this disruption after seven years of stability catalyzed a series of traumatic events. Within five yearsFIGURE \x0b\x04 My Son, My Son CHECKLIST #34of his return to the United States, he suffered several heart attacks, ultimately undergoing quadruple bypass surgery in 1989. 74His problems were exacerbated by poverty and mental instability: shortly after he returned to Madison, he pur-chased and lived in a converted Frito-Lay truck, which he parked on the streets of Madison (fig. 29). His erratic behavior and precarious health prompted the Veterans Benefits Administration to intervene, and he was provided with housing and granted disability payments around 1986. 75Despite these significant personal struggles, Makuuchi was artistically productive following his return to the United States. The bulk of his existing graphic output was created during the last fifteen years of his life. This may have been related to his heart surgery, which his friend Josef LaVigne said he considered a second chance. 76The support of Andrew and Renee Balkin was particularly crucial during these years. Not only did they provide friendship and some financial support, but FIGURE \x0c\x05 Munio Makuuchi and his van, ca. 1985.they also provided materials and a place to workvital elements for printmaker. 50 51'