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Collage of students working in physics labs

Smith College physics provides integrated, hands-on learning, supportive professors and fellow physics majors, real research projects and great physics toys.

The physics department offers a rigorous curriculum that pairs innovative teaching techniques with a supportive and close-knit community of faculty, staff and students. Students often double major with astronomy, computer science, math, engineering, chemistry and architecture. You can carry out leading-edge research on your own or in collaboration with faculty starting your first year. Faculty research interests include nonlinear optics, experimental and computational condensed matter physics, complex fluids, molecular materials, low-dimensional systems, cold atom physics and cosmology.


The Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics

January 19–20, the University of Massachusetts

This event is co-sponsored and co-organized by the Five Colleges. Several Smith alumnae have been invited to be plenary speakers and panelists. Look for details on the conference website.

Spring Seminars

View the full schedule.

Universe’s Coolest Lab Set to Open Up Quantum World

Smith Physics Professor Courtney Lannert is part of the experiment that aims to create the coldest temperature in space. A rocket was launched on May 21, 2018. See the Nature news article.

Physics and Astronomy Club

Consider joining the Smith Physics and Astronomy Club, a student-directed organization of science enthusiasts.

National Society of Physics Students Award

For the second year in a row, our Smith Chapter of the National SPS (Society of Physics Students) received the “Notable Chapter” award (2017 and 2018)!


Smith College physics majors graduate with a combination of disciplinary knowledge and skills that prepares them for graduate work in physics or other STEM fields, medical school, teaching, science policy and a variety of other career options.


The primary areas of knowledge covered by our major are mechanics, electricity and magnetism, quantum mechanics and thermal physics. Students will gain a good introductory knowledge of electronics, special relativity, optics, fluids and error analysis. In addition to these physical topics, our students need to master a variety of mathematical topics required in these fields.


At least as important as disciplinary knowledge are the skills required for a degree in physics. These include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Good problem-solving technique, including identification of physical principles, good use of diagrams, clear mathematical derivations, proper use of units, and physical analysis and assessment of results.
  • Ability to convey knowledge and observations in both oral and written forms.
  • Use of computer-based numerical and analytical methods to solve complex physical problems.
  • Gain insight through the use of experimental design, instrumentation and methods that reveal signal and reduce noise in messy data.
  • Data analysis, including the use of plotting software and basic statistical analysis to draw conclusions and infer significance.

The Education Track

Students who choose the education track in the physics major may learn some topics at a more introductory level in some areas than it would be for a regular major, but they should still gain facility with all of the topics listed above, except, in some cases, thermal physics. They should also get a good working knowledge of the main ideas to emerge from physics education research. They should become proficient in all the skills listed above as well as tutoring and providing in-class help to students.

Advisers: Members of the department 
The undergraduate physics curriculum at Smith stresses the fundamental principles, concepts and methods of physics with emphasis placed on analytical reasoning, problem­-solving and the critical evaluation of underlying assumptions in theory and experiment. Built around the core courses that achieve this goal, the major allows options within the requirements that provide flexibility to students primarily interested in interdisciplinary applications of physics.
The requirements for the major are as follows: 117, 118, 210, 215, 240, 317, 318, 319, 327, 350 (at least 4 credits), 360 (or an approved 300­-level alternative in physics or a related field), and 399.

While students are typically discouraged from taking PHY major requirements S/U, it may be allowed, after consultation with a student's major adviser and approval of the department.

Students double majoring in engineering may substitute EGR 220 for PHY 240 but are encouraged to take both.
Students may substitute CHM 331 for PHY 327 and CHM 332 for PHY 319. This option is intended for students double­ majoring (and/or planning on graduate work) in chemistry.
Students double majoring in astronomy and/or planning on graduate work in astrophysics may substitute AST 330, 335, 337 or 352 for PHY 360 as their 300 level physics elective.

Students planning on graduate work in chemistry may substitute CHM 335, 336, 338, or 398 for PHY 360 as their 300-level physics elective.
Students planning on graduate work in the geosciences may substitute GEO 309 or 311 for PHY 360 as their 300-level physics elective.

Students may repeat PHY 360 for credit in the major, with permission of the department.
Students are advised to check with members of the physics department to choose appropriate course substitutions; other courses may qualify, with advanced permission of the department.
Physics majors and minors are advised to acquire a facility in scientific computing and numerical analysis (e.g. CSC 111 Introduction to Computer Science or CSC 205 Modeling in the Sciences) and to learn to design and fabricate a working tool, instrument or device in the Center for Design and Fabrication. Students planning graduate study in physics are advised to take as many 300­level physics courses as possible.

Advisers: Members of the department

The minor consists of 117, 118, 215 and three additional 200- or 300-level physics courses. When appropriate, and with prior approval, one qualifying course in the student’s major can be substituted for one of the three physics electives required for the physics minor. Interested students should consult with a member of the department.

Advisers: Members of the department

Besides the standard physics major, we also offer a physics education track within the major. The regular major track includes 300-level course requirements necessary for preparation for graduate school. The education track replaces some of the upper level courses with courses in physics pedagogy and education and engages students in practical experience in the physics classroom. Students interested in teaching and science journalism should consider this track.


Physics courses: PHY 117 and PHY 118, PHY 210, PHY 215, PHY 240, 2 modules of PHY 350, PHY 300, PHY 301 and one of PHY 317, PHY 318, PHY 319, or PHY 327.
Astronomy courses: AST 111
Education courses: EDC 232, EDC 238
Math courses: Students must complete or place out of three semesters of calculus to fulfill the prerequisites for the required physics courses.
One additional course: EDC 390, a second run through of PHY 300 & PHY 301, or any other 300-level physics course
Substitutions: Several courses above may be replaced with appropriate substitutes. Speak to a member of the department for details. The list would be the same for the education track as for the current major.


Note: This track does not lead to educator licensure. Students who wish to satisfy licensure requirements would need to take EDC courses EDC 342, 347, 352, 390, plus EDC 346 (Clinical Internship in Teaching), and should consult with a faculty member of the Department of Education and Child Study.

Director: Gary Felder

Students can apply to complete honors, which involves working on an independent thesis project with one of the faculty members of the department. The completion of the thesis work will lead to a bachelor of arts degree with a notation of "Honors," "High Honors" or "Highest Honors." Look for information about how to apply, the timelines, dates and eligibility on the class deans website.

For the physics department, the eligibility criterion are as follows: GPA: π outside the major and 1.1π in the major

Honors in Your Senior Year

If you would like to do a thesis project in your senior year, talk to the faculty in the department to find out about their research and get an early start. Although not absolutely essential, it helps to get a head start with semester/summer projects with the faculty. Once you and your faculty project adviser have discussed and agreed to this, you have to wait to apply to enter departmental honors at the start of your senior year. The application deadline is within the first week of classes. Give the proposal and application priority when you return to campus. Once your proposal is approved by your department or program and the Subcommittee on Honors and Independent Programs (SHIP), you will get automatically officially registered in the course. This usually happens during the third week of the semester in which you start your thesis.


PHY 110 Energy, Environment and Climate 
Our planet’s reliance on carbon-based, non-renewable energy sources comes at a severe environmental, economic and political cost. This seminar offers a hands-on exploration of renewable energy technologies.Students will assess worldwide energy demand, study the limits to improved energy efficiency, explore the science and technology of solar, wind, and hydropower, understand the science behind global warming, investigate climate models, and evaluate strategies for a sustainable future. This writing-intensive course includes in-class experiments and field trips. Requires high-school mathematics. Enrollment limited to 16 first-year students. (E) {N} Credits: 4 
Nathanael Alexander Fortune 
Expected to be offered in the next 3 years 

PHY 117 Introductory Physics I 
The concepts and relations (force, energy and momentum) describing physical interactions and the changes in motion they produce, along with applications to the physical and life sciences. Lab experiments, lectures and problem-solving activities are interwoven into each class. Discussion sections offer additional help with mathematics, data analysis and problem solving. This course satisfies medical school and engineering requirements for an introductory physics I course with labs. Prerequisite: one semester introductory calculus course covering the basic principles and methods of integration and differentiation (MTH 111 or equivalent). In the spring semester, first-year students have the first opportunity to enroll. Students are enrolled in the following priority order: first-year students, then second-years, then juniors, then seniors. All upper-class student are wait-listed until first-years have registered. Sections are capped at 28. {N} Credits: 5 
Moumita Dasgupta, Courtney Lannert, Joyce Palmer-Fortune, William Douglas Williams 
Normally offered both fall and spring semesters 

PHY 118 Introductory Physics II 
Simple harmonic motion, fluids, electricity and magnetisms. Lab experiments are integrated into the in-class lectures, discussions and problem solving activities. Three extended-length classes/week plus a discussion section. Satisfies medical school and engineering requirements for an introductory physics II course with labs. Prerequisite: PHY 117 or permission of the instructor. Enrollment limited to 28. {N} Credits: 5 
Travis T. Norsen 
Normally offered both fall and spring semesters 

PHY 209 The Big Bang and Beyond 
According to modern science the universe as we know it began expanding about 14 billion years ago from an unimaginably hot, dense fireball. Why was the universe in that particular state? How did the universe get from that state to the way it is today, full of galaxies, stars and planets? What evidence supports this “big bang model”? Throughout this course we focus not simply on what we know about these questions, but also on how we know it and on the limitations of our knowledge. Designed for non-science majors. Enrollment limited to 20. {N} Credits: 4 
Members of the department 
Expected to be offered in the next 3 years 

PHY 210 Mathematical Methods of Physical Sciences and Engineering 
This course covers a variety of math topics of particular use to physics and engineering students. Topics include differential equations, complex numbers, Taylor series, linear algebra, Fourier analysis, partial differential equations, and a review of multivariate calculus, with particular focus on physical interpretation and application. Prerequisites: MTH 212 and PHY 117, or permission of the instructor. Enrollment limit of 30. {M} {N} Credits: 0-4 
Gary Neil Felder, Travis T. Norsen 
Normally offered both fall and spring semesters 

PHY 215 Introductory Physics III 
The special theory of relativity; the wave equation and mathematics of waves; optical phenomena of interference and diffraction; particle and wave models of matter and radiation, Bohr model of atomic structure; introduction to fundamental principles and problems in quantum mechanics; introduction to nuclear physics. Prerequisite: PHY 118 and prior or concurrent enrollment in PHY 210. {N} Credits: 4 
Doreen Anne Weinberger 
Normally offered each spring 

PHY 240 Electronics 
A semester of experiments in electronics, with emphasis on designing, building and trouble-shooting circuits. Discrete electronic components: physics and applications of diodes and transistors. Analog and digital IC circuits: logic gates, operational amplifiers, timers, counters and displays. Final individual design project. Prerequisite: 118 or permission of the instructor. Enrollment limit of 14. {N} Credits: 4 
Nalini Easwar 
Normally offered each fall 

PHY 300 Physics Pedagogy:  Theory 
A course emphasizing the pedagogy in physics based on Physics Education Research (PER). Readings and discussion emphasize the research literature and strategies for implementing successful and effective methods of teaching physics at the introductory level in the classroom. Permission of the instructor required.  May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: PHY 117 and/or PHY 118. (E) {N} Credits: 2 
Joyce Palmer-Fortune, Doreen Anne Weinberger 
Normally offered both fall and spring semesters 

PHY 301 Physics Pedagogy: Practicum 
A practicum course involving actual classroom experience in implementing methods of teaching based on Physics Education Research (PER). Students have direct interaction with learners in the classroom during group activities, laboratory exercises and problem-solving. PHY300, the theory course based on PER, is a pre requisite/co-requisite. Permission of the instructor required. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisites: PHY 117 and/or PHY 118. (E) {N} Credits: 2 
Members of the department 
Normally offered both fall and spring semesters 

PHY 317 Classical Mechanics 
Newtonian dynamics of particles and rigid bodies, oscillations. Prerequisite: 215 or permission of the instructor. {N} Credits: 4 
Doreen Anne Weinberger 
Normally offered each fall 

PHY 318 Electricity and Magnetism 
Electrostatic and magnetostatic fields in vacuum and in matter, electrodynamics and electromagnetic waves. Prerequisite: PHY 215 or permission of the instructor. {N} Credits: 4 
Doreen Anne Weinberger 
Normally offered each fall 

PHY 319 Thermal Physics 
Introduction to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Prerequisites: 215 or permission of the instructor. {N} Credits: 4 
Gary Neil Felder 
Normally offered each spring 

PHY 327 Quantum Mechanics 
The formal structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, including operator methods. Wave packets; quantum mechanical scattering and tunneling; central potentials; matrix mechanics of spin, addition of angular momenta; corrections to the hydrogen spectrum; identical particles and exchange symmetry; EPR paradox, Bell’s Theorem and the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Prerequisites: 215 or permission of the instructor. Taking 317 before 327 is recommended. {N} Credits: 4 
William Douglas Williams 
Normally offered each spring 

PHY 350 Experimental Physics 
An advanced laboratory course in which students make use of advanced signal recovery methods to design and perform laboratory experiments covering a wide range of topics in modern physics. Available experimental modules include pulsed and CW NMR, optical pumping of atoms, single photon quantum interference, magneto-optical polarization, the Franck-Hertz experiment and the Hall effect. Experimental methods include signal averaging, filtering, modulation techniques and phase-sensitive detection. Students select up to four extended experiments per semester, planning their experiment, preparing equipment, performing measurements, analyzing data and presenting written and/or oral reports. Each module counts for 1 credit. Prerequisites: PHY 215 and PHY 240 or permission of the instructor. May be repeated for credit up to a maximum of 8 credits. Enrollment limited to 8 per lab section. (E) {N} Credits: 4 
Nathanael Alexander Fortune, Doreen Anne Weinberger 
Normally offered each spring 

PHY 360 Advanced Topics in Physics 
Selected special topics that vary from year to year; typically some subset of the following: climate physics, cosmology, general relativity, nuclear and particle physics, optics, solid state physics. Prerequisites vary with the topics of the course. 

Climate Physics 
Our planet's climate is strongly influenced by atmospheric composition, and changes in this composition are leading to climate change. This course provides a detailed investigation of the physical mechanisms controlling climate change by introducing and weaving together applications of basic thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics to planetary climate. In addition to solving analytical models, students will also learn how to construct  and apply computational models of the Earth's climate. Prerequisites: PHY 118, PHY 210, and PHY 215, or permission of instructor. {N} Credits: 4 
Members of the department 
Expected to be offered in the next 3 years 

An introduction to the structure and history of the universe. Topics include the big bang model, inflation and the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, accelerated expansion and the possible futures of the universe and multiverse theories. The course also introduces some of the basic conceptual ideas behind general relativity and their application to cosmology. Prerequisites: PHY 210 and PHY 215, or permission of the instructor. {N} Credits: 4 
Members of the department 
Expected to be offered in the next 3 years 

General Relativity 
This course will cover the basics of general relativity. We will discuss tensors and metric spaces and re-frame special relativity in those terms. We will then generalize the rules of special relativity to non-inertial frames, and use the equivalence principle to extend those ideas to spaces with gravitational fields. We will explore “Einstein’s equation” relating matter and geometry. Finally, we will discuss basic applications, including black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmology. Prerequisites: PHY210 and PHY215, or permission of the instructor.  {N} Credits: 4 
Members of the department 
Expected to be offered in the next 3 years 

PHY 399 Current Physics Literature 
For this course we read articles and attend talks on diverse topics in physics. The emphasis is put on oral presentation and discussion of the new phenomena using knowledge from other physics courses. Prerequisite: PHY 215, or permission of the instructor. Restricted to juniors and seniors. Enrollment limit 8. {N} Credits: 2 
Nalini Easwar, William Douglas Williams 
Expected to be offered in the next 3 years 

PHY 410 Capstone Physics 
This course is intended to give students who plan to continue in graduate school with the study of physics (or a related discipline) an opportunity to synthesize bodies of knowledge from the different sub-disciplines of physics. Administering of GRE practice exams will be used as an assessment tool of this understanding and of relevant analytical skills needed for problem-solving. {N} Credits: 1 
Members of the department 
Expected to be offered in the next 3 years 

PHY 432D Honors Project 
This is a full-year course. Credits: 6 
Members of the department 
Normally offered both fall and spring semesters 

PHY 400 Special Studies 
By permission of the department. Credits: 1-4 
Normally offered each academic year


Featured Event

Effect of Electric Fields on Cold Atoms

  • McConnell 103, 4:15 p.m. Tea and cookies at 4 p.m.
  • Spring 2019 Seminar Series
    Anne Goodsell
    Department of Physics, Middlebury College

    All are welcome.


Pfabe Symposium and Department Presentations

  • McConnell 103, 4:15 p.m. Tea and cookies at 4 p.m.
  • All are welcome.



Majors in Physics


Margaret Allard
Sarah Elghazoly
Brenna Getzin, 2019 J
Olena Komarova
Lucy Weijian Lin


Cait Battle-McDonald
Olivia Cooper
Helen Edge 
Noelle Fischer
Michaela Guzzetti
Yining Hua
Esther Kerns
Simona Miller
Annie Peck 
Yuhan Wen
Eve Xu
Alyssa Cassity
Mackenzie Litz


Cynthia Lan
Chelsea Perez 
Quincy Webb 
Susan McDougal

Megan O'Brien
Amanda Malnati


Minors in Physics


Allison Erena


Elizabeth Bouteneff


Halle Brown



The physics faculty do experimental, theoretical and computational research in collaboration with students on a wide variety of topics within physics: cosmology, optics, granular matter, high-speed video capture, quantum magnetism, cold atom physics and solar energy. Students can start working with Smith faculty on research projects starting their very first year. Smith physics majors regularly present their research results at conferences and in published articles in leading scientific journals. In the last decade we’ve supervised more than 100 research students. So come on and join us!

You are always welcome to connect with faculty and find out more about their research and projects. There are opportunities to conduct research during the semester and over the summers supported by individual faculty grants or Clark Science Center research funds. Students can work on research for special studies course credit or they can choose to do a senior honors thesis. Please see the requirements section above for more information on the honors thesis.

See individual faculty bios for more information on their work, and below is a slideshow offering a quick summary of the physics faculty's fields of research.

View a slideshow of faculty research.

The best way to get involved in research is to look up the information about the different areas of research that faculty members are pursuing. Interested students are urged to fill out this Google form to apply to join a research lab. You could work with faculty during the semester as research assistants if their grants allow for it or as a special studies for course credit. These often lead to possibilities to do summer research and/or honors theses in the senior year. 

Summer Research

Many Smith students have participated in REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) and SURF (Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship) programs. They are typically eight- to 12-week programs where students have the opportunity to work closely with a research mentor. Also, some of them are well funded and give good stipends. REUs are announced between November and January.

If you wish to stay on campus, visit the Smith SURF program website.

If you are looking for an off-campus program, start with the NSF REU Sites directory and the Smith College Clark Science Center's list of summer research opportunities beyond Smith.

NSF funds a large number of research opportunities for undergraduate students through its REU Sites program. An REU Site consists of a group of about 10 undergraduates who work in the research programs of the host institution. Each student is associated with a specific research project and works closely with the faculty and other researchers. An REU Site may be at either a U.S. or foreign location. Browse the directory.


Stay tuned for information about teaching and outreach opportunities available to students studying physics at Smith.


We have annual events like the orientation fest for the incoming class (all are invited) in September, Physics tea and toys for admitted students in April, and a very popular and well attended open house for physics demos and toys on the Friday of graduation weekend. This is open to the the entire campus, families, and the community. 

Besides this the student physics club holds movie nights, physics trivia nights and other outreach activities to the community

Look out for pics from these events that will be uploaded shortly!  

Alumnae Spotlight

Alumnae have used their physics undergraduate degree as a springboard to a wide range of careers. About 50 percent of alumnae go on to graduate school in physics or allied fields, such as biophysics, computer science, engineering and material science. Several follow an academic path in research and teaching positions at universities and colleges.

Our majors have an increasing interest in becoming high school teachers. Our introduction of an education track in the major facilitates this career direction. Others have had interesting and diverse career paths in national research labs, R&D in industry, in nonprofit organizations and in corporate and intellectual property law. We have successful entrepreneurs, too.

View a slideshow of alumnae profiles.

Photo of Melissa Eblen-Zayas

Melissa Eblen-Zayas ’99

  • Ph.D. in physics from University of Minnesota
  • Chair of physics and astronomy at Carleton College 2012–16
  • Director of the Perlman Center for Learning and Teaching at Carleton


Photo of A. Stevie Bergman

A. Stevie Bergman ’09

  • Co-founded GirlTech, a science camp for Ugandan girls
  • Fulbright fellowship in Indonesia, studying theoretical high energy physics
  • Worked on the Pixel Detector in ATLAs at CERN
  • Ph.D. from Princeton University in observational cosmology

Photo of Isabel Lipartito

Isabel Lipartito ’15

  • Astrophysics graduate student at UC Santa Barbara
  • NSF graduate fellow
  • Researching Microwave Kinetic Inductor Detector-based instruments for high-contrast astronomy
  • President of Women in Physics at UCSB

Physics in Action

Physics is fun, and it shows! Watch sample videos from around the department: from classrooms, faculty presentations, demonstrations or other department events.

Quantum Levitation of a Superconductor
Thunder Demo with Professor Doreen Weinberger
Professor Gary Felder Explores the Universe


Department of Physics

McConnell Hall
Smith College
Northampton, MA 01063

Phone: 413-585-3804
Fax: 413-585-3786

Current Chair: Courtney Lannert