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CliffNotes: Statistics

Brief articles outlining basic concepts associated with statistics. Topics include an overview, graphic displays, numerical measures, probability, sampling, principles of testing, univariate inferential tests, and bivariate relationships.

Choosing a Statistical Test

Provides a table outlining statistical tests based on your type of data and study goal.

Analyzing Data

Fully downloadable PDF text from Graphpad Software, Inc. Although it is written as a companion to online software, it is a helpful general resource for understanding basic statistical principles, outlining when (and how) to use specific statistical tests based on your data, and interpreting statistical results.

Online Textbooks

Used to be StatNotes from North Carolina State University. A resource for basic and advanced quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods. Includes an overview for when to use specific analyses, key concepts and terms, assumptions, frequently asked questions, and even visual guides for using tests in SPSS and interpreting the outputs.

The Electronic Statistics Textbook

From Statsoft, Inc. Contains an overview of elementary concepts and continues with a more in depth exploration of specific areas of statistics, organized by modules representing classes of analytic techniques. A glossary of statistical terms and a list of references for further study are included.

Links to online statistics books, tutorials, downloadable software, and related resources.

Tools and Resources for Analyzing Data

GraphPad Quick Calculations

For computing categorical data, continuous data, statistical distributions (and interpreting p-values), and random number assignment (for experimental design).

Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets for Statistical Calculations

In addition to general statistical calculations, it includes graphing functions for interactions and moderated mediations. Tutorials for using excel for basic statistics can be found at websites from Clemson University or University of Toronto.

Software Tutorials

This website from the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Smith College includes tutorials for dataset conversion, R, Stata, and SAS.

SPSS Online Training Workshop

The most comprehensive (and free) resource for learning SPSS online. Includes text and video clips. Assumes no prior knowledge of SPSS.

SPSS Library
In depth information about particular features of SPSS (including specialized analyses such as linear mixed models). Provides a more detailed understanding of particular features in SPSS.

Other Resources for Advanced Statistical Methods

Factor Analysis

Fully downloadable text by Tucker and MacCallum (1993). A multivariate statistical technique for detecting latent (hidden) variables in your data. Highly recommended for those working with psychological tests and measures.

Logistic Regression and Discriminant Analysis

Provides an overview of multivariate statistical techniques for working with categorical dependent variables.

Structural Equation Modeling

Provides an overview of a multivariate statistical technique that combines factor analytic strategies with path analysis. You can find more information and resources at


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Copyright © 2007 Smith College, Spinelli Center for Quantitative Learning
Seelye Hall, Room 207, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063
Tel 413.585.3091  |  Questions? Contact us  |  Last updated August 24, 2021

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