Fall 2000

GHA SHAHID ALI (1949-2001) was a member of the poetry faculty of the MFA and PhD Program in Creative Writing at the University of Utah and also taught at Hamilton College and the University of Massachusetts. He held visiting appointments at Princeton, SUNY-Binghamton, and Jammu (India). His seven collections of poetry include The Half-Inch Himalayas (Wesleyan University Press), A Walk Through the Yellow Pages (SUN/gemini Press), A Nostalgist's Map of America (W. W. Norton), The Beloved Witness: Selected Poems (Viking Penguin), and The Country Without a Post Office (W. W. Norton), a collection that focuses on the current turmoil in his native Kashmir. He is also translator of The Rebel's Silhouette: Selected Poems by Faiz Ahmed Faiz (University of Massachusetts Press, revised edition) as well as the author of T. S. Eliot as Editor (UMI Research Press). His poems appear regularly in Antioch Review, Chelsea, Denver Quarterly, Field, Grand Street, London Magazine, The Nation, Paris Review, Poetry, Tri-Quarterly, and Yale Review. He also edited Ravishing DisUnities: Real Ghazals in English. A recipient of Guggenheim and Ingram-Merrill fellowships, he also won fellowships from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, the Breadloaf Writer's Conference, and the New York Foundation for the Arts, as well as a Pushcart Prize.

ZORAN ANCHEVSKI is currently Professor of literature in the English Department of the University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje, Macedonia, where he received his PhD. He lives in Macedonia and has studied and worked in Australia, and in Chico, California (MA). A respected poet in his home country, he is also a prolific translator from English to Macedonian.

VENKO ANDONOVSKI (b. 1964 in Kumanovo, Macedonia) is a poet, critic, fiction-writer, dramatist, and essayist who also teaches modern Croatian Literature at the Philological Faculty in Skopje. The selection included here is from his collection Frescoes and Grotesques (1983). His most recent play, The Slavic Chest (1998), has been translated into English.

CARLOS DRUMMOND DE ANDRADE (1902-1987) a Brazilian poet, is generally considered the finest and most accessible twentieth-century poet writing in Portuguese.

PETRE M. ANDREEVSKI (b. 1934 in Sloestica, the Demir Hisar region of southwestern Macedonia) is a poet, dramatist, novelist, and writer of short stories. Widely anthologized in Macedonia and abroad, his works have been translated into numerous languages. His most recent novel, The Last Peasants (1997), depicts the decline of village life and customs in the face of outside influences.

WALTER ARNDT was born in Constantinople in 1916 as a citizen of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. After studying at Breslau (Silesia) and Oxford, he attended graduate school in Warsaw. He holds a doctorate in Comparative Linguistics and Classics from the University of North Carolina. In 1939 he resigned his German citizenship and volunteered for the Polish army. After escaping from a German POW camp, he spent a year in the Polish underground. Between 1942 and 1945, Mr. Arndt was active in political, military, and war-economic intelligence with the U.S. Office of Strategic Services and later with the O.W.I. He taught at Robert College (Istanbul) and worked in the U.N. refugee resettlement between 1944 and 1949, when he emigrated to the United States. He has taught at Guilford College, Chapel Hill, and Dartmouth. His verse translation of Pushkin's Eugene Onegin (1963) was awarded a Bollingen Prize. His verse translation of Goethe's Faust in the metric forms of the original was first published in 1972 (2nd edition, 2000). He has also published books on linguistic theory and glottochronology.

DAVID BALL's translations of modern French poetry have appeared in various literary and academic journals, most recently in Sites: The Journal of 20th Century/Contemporary French Studies (including poems by James Sacré). Darkness moves: An Henri Michaux Anthology 1927-1984 (University of California Press), which he selected, presented and translated, was awarded the MLA's Scaglione Prize for outstanding translation in 1996. He has written on the poetics of translation in Translation Review, The Germanic Review, and elsewhere. Ball's own poems have appeared in such places as Locus Solus, The World, The Atlantic Monthly, Bombay Gin, and in five small chapbooks. He is Professor of French and Comparative Literature at Smith College.

RON BANERJEE, poet, essayist, and translator, is author of Far From You (Toronto, 1981); Poetry from Bengal (Unesco, 1989); L'Antica Fiamma (Galleria Pegaso Editore, 1995); and Sonnets for the Madonna (Florence, Maschietto & Musolino, 1999). Born in Calcutta, he was educated at Edinburgh, Rome, and Harvard Universities. He has taught English and Comparative Literature at various American Universities, including Smith College and the Five Colleges; and he has been a Fulbright Professor in India.

MARTIN WILMOT BENNETT's collection of poems, Loose Watches, was published by the University of Salzburg Press. He has had three stories read on BBC World Service and other works appear in Modern Poetry in Translation, Stand, Wascana Review, and elsewhere. Some of his poetry is available on

FIAMA HASSE PAIS BRANDÄO is the major poet of her generation in Portugal. She has published fourteen volumes of poetry, the most recent of which, Epistles and Memoranda, won the D. Dinis Prize in late 1997 and the Grande Premio de Poesia from the Portuguese Writers Association in February 1998. Her work has appeared in French, Italian, Spanish, German, Polish, and English. In the U.S., Levitin's authorized translations of Fiama's disturbingly powerful poems have appeared in numerous magazines, including The Partisan Review, The Massachusetts Review, Prairie Schooner, Seneca Review, Artful Dodge, The Connecticut Poetry Review, The Green Mountain Review, and Abraxas.

BARTOLO CATTAFI (1922-1979) was born in the province of Messina, Sicily, but he lived and worked in Milan for most of his life. He began to write poetry after a medical discharge from the army during WWII. He traveled extensively in Spain, Great Britain, and North Africa and published many collections during his lifetime. His selected poems were published in 1990 by Mondadori as Poesie 1943-1979.

IOAN CRETU was born and raised in Romania and attended the University of Georgia (Athens, GA). He has published over a hundred essays and book reviews in the major Romanian literary magazines and has translated extensively into Romanian from works by Julian Barnes, Kingsley Amis, Saul Bellow, Alexander Theroux, and others. In the last ten years he worked as a journalist for several Romanian newspapers and magazines, and in 1998-1999 as a correspondent for the British magazine Media International. In 1996 he spent three months as a writer in residence at the Mary Anderson Center in Indiana.

CHARLES CUTLER's translations of Brazilian poets: Thiago de Mello, Joao de Jesus Paes Loureiro, Astrid Cabral, Jorge Tufic, Antísthenes Pinto, Carlos Drummond de Andrade and others have appeared in The Massachusetts Review, Two Lines, and Amazonian Literary Review. Translations of the contemporary Portuguese writers Maria Velho da Costa and Eduarda Dionisio, appeared in Sweet Marmalade, Sour Oranges: Contemporary Portuguese Women's Fiction. He is co-editor of Amazonian Literary Review and Professor of Spanish and Portuguese at Smith College.

GARCILASO DE LA VEGA (ca. 1503-1536, b. Toledo) is the quintessence of the soldier-poet found with such frequency in Spanish letters. His biography is emblematic of the ambivalent symbiosis between Hapsburg imperialism and the Spanish crusade. A member of the royal guard in 1520 and a Knight of Santiago in 1523, he was an important participant in the failed expedition against the Turks at Rhodes 1522 and in the defense of Navarre against the French in 1523. In 1532 he was banished to an island on the Danube for witnessing Charles' nephew's secret wedding, though he later regained favor long enough to participate in the Tunis campaign of 1535 and the invasion of France in 1536. He was killed leading an attack on the fort of Le Muy near Fréjus.

STANISLAV DYGAT (1914-1978), a Polish writer of short stories, novels, and screenplays, wrote and published through the Communist publishing apparatus. Nevertheless, he was very critical of the Communist system, not from the capitalist point of view but from the point of view of Poland's ancient traditions of democracy and intellectual freedom. At times his work disappeared from bookstores and libraries. These pieces, from Rainy Evenings, were written in the 1950s and '60s.

FAIZ AHMED FAIZ (1911-1984) was born in India, in undivided Punjab, of Punjabi Muslim parents. Considered the leading poet of the South Asian subcontinent, he was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize and won the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962. An outspoken poet in opposition to the Pakistani government, he was also a professor of English literature, a distinguished editor of the Pakistan Times, and a major figure in the Afro-Asian Writers' Association.

RINA FERRARELLI is a poet and translator of modern Italien poetry who came to the United States from Italy at the age of fifteen. She has published two books of translation, Light Without Motion (Owl Creek Press, 1989) and I Saw the Muses (Guernica, 1997), which was one of the five finalists for the Landon Translation Prize. She received a grant from the NEA, and the Italo Calvino Prize from the Columbia University Translation Center. Her translated poetry has appeared in publications such as Artful Dodge, Chelsea, Denver Quarterly, Exchanges, The Hudson Review, The International Poetry Review, The International Quarterly, La Fusta, The Literary Review, Mundus Artium, New Letters, The New Orleans Review and Translation.

RICHARD GAUGHRAN was Senior Fulbright Scholar for American Studies at the English Department of the University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje, Macedonia, from 1997 to 1999. Currently living in the new republic, he has worked on numerous translations of Macedonian literature into English. A specialist in American Literature, he has taught at Lehigh University and Allentown College in Pennsylvania, and at James Madison University in Virginia.

JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (1749-1832) is widely considered one of the greatest figures in German literature. He was a poet, novelist, playwright, and natural philosopher. His Bildungsroman, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, was immediately influential, and Faust has become a canonical work.

ERIC CLIFFORD GRAF is Assistant Professor of Spanish at Smith College. He received his PhD from the University of Virginia in 1996, and has published critical articles on Garcilaso de la Vega, Vicente Aleixandre, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, and the Poema de mio Cid. He is currently completing a book on the politics of the poetry, art, and narrative of Garcilaso, El Greco, and Cervantes in Hapsburg Spain.

ROGER GREENWALD has earned several major awards for his poetry, including the CBC Radio / Saturday Night Literary Award (1994). He has published one book of poems, Connecting Flight (1993), several volumes of poetry in translation from Norwegian and Swedish, and one novel translated from Swedish. His awards for translation include the F. R. Scott, the Richard Wilbur, the Inger Sjöberg, and the American-Scandinavian Foundation Translation Prizes. He has also held an NEA Translation Fellowship.

GABRIELE HADL, born and raised in Austria, studied literature at Smith College in the US. English teacher and student of Japanese culture by day, eco-warrior and Kyoto Journal circulation manager by night, she initiated Buy Nothing Day Japan, an annual Nov. 24 event in which several incarnations of the bodhisattva Zenta Claus meditate at department stores silently proclaiming: "the revolution starts right where you sit."

LIZ HARRIS holds an MFA in fiction writing from the University of Arkansas, where she is currently finishing an MFA in literary translation. She has won two Lily Peter Fellowships and the Dudley Fitz Award from the University of Arkansas Press for her translations of Italian short stories and poetry. Her own short stories appear or are forthcoming in Other Voices, Denver Quarterly, The Florida Review, and Many Mountains Moving, and excerpts of Giacomo's Seasons are forthcoming in Exchanges and Northwest Review.

YEHUDIT BEN ZVI HELLER was born in Petach-Tikva, Israel, and was educated in Jerusalem, where she worked as a teacher specializing in learning and behavioral problems in female adolescents. Since 1984 she has resided in Amherst. At the University of Massachusetts, she served for many years as Associate Director of the Hillel Foundation and has also taught numerous courses on myth and folklore and on Jewish and Israeli literature. Her poetry in Hebrew has appeared in a number of Israeli literary reviews. Yehudit's first book of poetry, The Woman in a Purple Coat, was published in 1996 by Eked Publishing, Tel Aviv; a second collection of poems in Hebrew will be published in the fall of 2001.

YIORGOS IOANNOU (1927-1985) was perhaps the most influential post-war writer of Greek fiction. A collection of his last stories, Good Friday Vigil, is available in English from Kedros Editions. "The Sarcophagus" is the title story of his second book, published in 1971.

PHILIPPE JACCOTTET (1925- ) considers poetry to be "le langage le plus vrai sur l'essential" ("the most telling language about what really matters"). He has defined his role as shedding light upon reality. A prolific translator of Hölderlin, Rilke, Musil, and others, he has written books in various genres. Among his best-known poetry collections are L'Effraie (The Screech Owl ), L'Ignorant, and Airs.

CLARENCE KENNEDY (1892-1972) was for all his working life professor of Art History at Smith College. He was photographer to Duveen, Mackay, et al., and known especially for his photographs of sculptures from the Italian Renaissance. He was particularly interested in making reproductions of art of high quality available to the general public and was consultant to Polaroid, Eastman Kodak, and Meriden Gravure.

MELINDA KENNEDY was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, and spent much of her youth in Italy. Editor, translator, writer, she retired from teaching in 1989 and thereafter became co-editor of Metamorphoses. Her poems have appeared in such journals as The Southern Review and The Massachusetts Review. She lives now in a former station in the Underground Railroad with her dog Simeon Aristides.

JOHN KHOURY, born in Illinois and raised in California, studied philosophy in Maine, Spanish in Madrid, and language education at the School for International Training in Vermont. He directs Excelsior Academy, an English school in Kyoto, Japan. His interests include Japanese literature, bamboo basketry, and learning to see.

YUHN BOK KIM (Kim Yuhn Bok in Korean) is a Korean native who writes his poems in English and then recreates them in Korean, using the same material but "cooking each poem again in the soup of Korean taste." He has taught English in the past but is now a vice-principal in a high school in Kyung-Buk, Republic of Korea.

KATHERINE CALLEN KING is Professor of Comparative Literature and Classics at UCLA. She specializes in Greek poetry and gender studies, and has published a bilingual edition of Gina Valdes' poetry collection, Puentes y fronteras.

STEPHANIE KRAFT (1944- ) is a journalist who first visited Poland in 1988, before the end of the Communist regime. Since then she has returned each year and observed the redevelopment of the nation's economy and politics. She holds a doctorate in English literature from the University of Rochester, and has been studying Polish since 1990.

NIKOLAUS LENAU (1802-1850) He wrote lyric poetry, and verse epics on historical themes, including Faust and Savonarola. Although his poetry does not always escape the shoals of sentimentality and precious rhetoric, he stands out among German Romantic poets of his time because of the musical quality of his verse, his evocations of the landscape of his native eastern Germany, his impressions of tropical settings, and images from a year spent in North America.

ALEXIS LEVITIN has published translations of poetry (from Portuguese) in 200 magazines, including Partisan Review and American Poetry Review, and fifteen books in translation, including seven volumes of poetry by Eugenio de Andrade, which won him the first Pessoa translation prize from Columbia University. His translation of Soulstorm by Clarice Lispector was published by New Directions. His work has been supported by grants from the Witter Bynner Poetry Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation.

MITKO MADUNKOV (b. 1943 in Strumica, southeastern Macedonia) graduated from the Department of Literature and Literary Theory in Belgrade. His numerous publications include six collections of short stories, three novels, and five plays. His novels The Hedge of the World (1984) and To the Other Country (1993) each won prestigious national awards. "The Bombing" is from his most recent collection, The Tree of Narajana (1998). He lives in Belgrade, where he works in the Public Library.

MARTIN SCOTT MCKINSEY's translations include The Courtyard, a novel by Andreas Franghais, which won the 1996 Greek State Prize for Translation; and Late Into the Night: The Last Poems of Yannis Ritsos, published in the Field Translation Series.

LENCE MILOSEVSKA, a poet and writer of short stories, has a degree in English from Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Macedonia, and lived and worked in Great Britain for two years. She currently works as an editor at Kultura Publishing House in Skopje and regularly translates from English, Serbian, and Croatian into Macedonian. Her translation of Ernest Hemingway's Nick Adams Stories won a national award, as did her rendering of Erich Fromm's The Art of Loving (both from English to Macedonian).

BLAZE MINEVSKI (b. 1961 in Gevgelija) is a reporter for the Macedonian daily Nova Makedonija, having studied journalism in Skopje. He has published three novels and several volumes of short stories, selections of which have been translated into other languages, including English. His most recent novel bears the revealing title We Should Have Taken a Picture Before We Started Hating Each Other (1998).

SANDRA MOUSSEMPÈS, born in Paris in 1965, has published two volumes of poetry, Exercices d'incendie (Éditions Fourbis 1994) and Vestiges de fillette (Flammarion 1997). Her poems and short stories have been published in many collected works and journals. Future publications include two short stories in NRF and translations from Vestiges de fillette by Serge Gavronsky in Sites, the Journal of 20th Century French Studies (in print 2000). In 1995, she received a prestigious residency grant at the Villa Médicis, Académie de France in Rome, and has since received many other grants, including the Mission Stendhal in London (1994; 1997), Semaines littéraires de Genshagen in Berlin (1999) and a residency at the Villa Kujoyama in Japan (2000).

KAREN NEWMAN is a Professor of Comparative Literature and English at Brown University, and is a comparatist working in early modern literature and culture, English, French, and Italian. Her books include Shakespeare's Rhetoric of Comic Character, Fashioning Femininity and English Renaissance Drama, and most recently, Fetal Positions: Individualism, Science, Visuality. She has also published articles on various Renaissance topics.

ORM ØVERLAND teaches American literature and American Studies at the University of Bergen in Norway. Recent books are Immigrant Minds, American Identities: Making the United States Home, 1870-1930 (2000) and The Western Home: A Literary History of Norwegian America (1996), both with University of Illinois Press. For the latter he was awarded the American Studies Network Prize for best European book in American Studies 1996-1997. In cooperation with the Longfellow Institute, Harvard University, he is the editor of a forthcoming translation of a Norwegian-American novel about Minneapolis in the 1880s, A Saloonkeeper's Daughter by Drude Krogh Janson (Johns Hopkins UP, 2001). In 1998 he was awarded The Norwegian Association of Literary Translators' Fiftieth Anniversary Book Reviewer Prize.

THALIA PANDIRI, Editor-in-Chief of Metamorphoses, is a Professor of Classics and Comparative Literature at Smith College. She has published translations from Modern Greek and Medieval Latin.

RAJEEV S. PATKE is Associate Professor of English at the National University of Singapore, where he teaches courses on postcolonial literature and coordinates the postgraduate program in literature. His books include The Long Poems of Wallace Stevens (Cambridge University Press, 1985), and the co-edited book Institutions in Cultures: Theory and Practice (Rodopi, 1996). He has also written several essays on Asian poetry, including "Indian Poetry since Independence" for the Oxford Illustrated History of Indian Writing (forthcoming).

CESARE PAVESE (1908-1950) was one of a group of anti-Fascist Italian writers who congregated in the cities of the North and produced a flowering of Italian letters unprecedented since the Renaissance. Some, like Pavese, were exiled by Mussolini (in imitation of Augustus Caesar) to outlying provinces. All were denied permanent employment for refusing to sign oaths or to join the Fascio, and made shift with translating and editing. The effect on Pavese was devastating, though he continued until his suicide to write original and significant works.

IOAN ES. POP, born in 1958 in northern Romania, received his degree from Baia Mare University in 1983. He taught Romanian language and literature for six years in the small town of Ieud, the starting point for his first volume of poems, Ieudul fara iesire ("Ieud, No Way Out," Bucharest: Cartea Romaneasca, 1994,), which includes the series "15 oltetului st., room 305" and "the banquet." That volume won numerous prizes and awards, as did Porcec (a fictitious proper name), from which the "House" series is taken (Bucharest: Carta Romanesca, 1996). In September 1989, Pop moved to Bucharest as a worker in the construction of the infamous Casa Popurului (the People's House, as the one-time dictator Ceausescu's palace was known), an experience that inspired a series of poems about "dormitory" conditions for the unmarried workers. In April 1990, he joined the literary magazine Luceafarul and is now senior editor for culture at Ziarul Financiar ("The Financial Journal"). His latest collection, Pantelimon 113 bis (Bucharest: Cartea Romanesca, 1999), won the Poetry Prize of the Union of Romanian Writers, the country's highest literary award.

RUTEBEUF was born in Champagne some time before 1249, lived in Paris, and died some time after 1277. He wrote fifty-six works which survive in fourteen manuscripts. The works are lyric, dramatic, polemical, and religious, many of them complaintes. Scholars have characterized Rutebeuf as the first "personal" poet of the French language. His style is remarkable for its intricate word play, and his voice, marked by a strong persona, prefigures that of Villon.

JAMES SACRÉ is one of the leading poets in France today. (His first name is common in the part of rural France where he grew up.) He has published close to thirty books, ten of them solid volumes with major publishers like Gallimard and Éditions du Seuil, the others smaller art books, often in collaboration with well-known artists. His poetry has appeared in innumerable journals and reviews, and has been recognized by a prize from the Académie Française; he also won the prestigious Prix Apollinaire and two other poetry prizes in France, where he was named Chevalier of the Order of Arts and Letters—all remarkable achievements for a poet who has made his home in the United States for over thirty years. He is Doris Silbert Professor in the Humanities at Smith College.

SAPPHO composed lyric and choral poetry in Aeolic Greek, on the island of Lesbos, ca. 600 B.C.E.

MADELEINE DE SCUDÉRY (1607-1701), was a novelist and salonnière known in her circle as "Sapho." Her romance novels, some of which were published under the name of her brother Georges de Scudéry, include Ibrahim, ou l'illustre Bassa (1641), Artaméneou le grand Cyrus (1649-53), Clélie, histoire romaine (1654-60) and Almahide, ou l'Esclsave-reine (1660-63). These were enormously popular throughout the seventeeth century; their characters are said to be portraits of her contemporaries.

CARL SESAR holds a degree in Greek and Latin, and a doctorate in Chinese and Japanese. His publications include Poems to Eat, translations of the modern Japanese tanka poet Ishikawa Takuboku, and Selected Poems of Catullus, translations of the ancient Roman lyric poet Gaius Valerius Catullus. He is at work on a second book of Takuboku's poems.

K. SHAVER was, for more than twenty years, CEO of advertising and of the public relations firms she founded. Her commitment to civic and professional involvement has included directorships and other leadership roles, and she was Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Spalding University. Since 1993, as a business consultant and trainer, she has been assisting private companies in Romania and Russia to understand and implement sound business and marketing practices. She has taught senior level graphic design at the University of Louisville and pursued her interests in creative writing, theatrical costuming, piano studies, and portraiture.

CAROLYN SHREAD is a PhD candidate in French at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, after degrees at the University of Sussex, UK and St. Anne's College, Oxford. Several of her academic translations in the field of economics have been published by Routledge, UK. Her MA dissertation "Translating the Matrix: The Process of Metamorphoses in the Notebooks of Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger" appeared in Versus (Leeds, UK, 1994) and an interview with Francophone author Nancy Huston was published by Sites, Vol. 2, Fall 1998. In 1992, her article "The Marché de la poésie: the Rendez-vous of France's Small Press" was published by Professional Translator and Interpreter. Her poems have been published in the British small press.

NATHANIEL SMITH has taught French and other Romance languages at Smith College, the University of Georgia, and Boston University. Now an administrator at Franklin and Marshall College (Lancaster PA), he teaches an annual first-year seminar in reading and writing poetry. He has written several books on medieval literature, and published poems and translations in many journals, including Catalan Review, Chelsea, Edge City Review, Exchanges, International Poetry Review, The Lyric, Metamorphoses, Paintbrush, Paragraph, Potpourri, The Prose Poem, Seneca Review, Sparrow, and Visions International.

MARIO RIGONI STERN was born in 1921 in Asiago, in the Veneto, the site of his novel Giacomo's Seasons. He has published eleven books with Einaudi Press. His Il sergente nella neve (Sergeant in the Snow, 1953), considered one of the great novels about the Italians at the Russian front during World War II, is widely studied in Italian schools. He has won numerous awards, including the Campiello Prize, the Pen Club Prize, and for Giacomo's Seasons (1995) the Grinzane Cavour Prize in 1996.

THEODOR STORM (1817-1888) His work reflects the natural environment of his native North Sea littoral. A lawyer, administrator, and later a judge, as well as a prolific writer, Storm wrote lyric poetry and prose. His early novellas are lyrical, melancholy evocations of mood; his later work, characterized by bourgeois realism, deals with the tragedy of destiny, and might be compared to Thomas Hardy's novels.

PIA TAFDRUP was born in Copenhagen. She made her literary debut in 1980 and has since published nine volumes of poetry that have earned her wide recognition and has issued an audio CD of selected poems. She has also edited two anthologies of contemporary Danish poetry and has published two plays and a volume of poetics. In 1989 she was inducted into the Danish Academy and in 1999 won the Nordic Council Prize for Literature. English versions of her poems have appeared in numerous journals in the U.K., the U.S., and Canada, including ARTES International, Pequod, WRIT, The Spirit That Moves Us, Prism International, Colorado Review, Asylum, and Frank. Her fourth book of poems, Springflod, appeared in English as Spring Tide, trans. Anne Born (London: Forest Books, 1989). Bonniers published a volume of selected poems in Swedish translation (1995). Her work has also been translated into a dozen other languages.

ISHIKAWA TAKUBOKU, a master of the tanka (short poem), is one of the most popular poets in all of Japanese literature. The minutiae of daily experience, brought into sharp focus with poignancy and telling detail, make up the content of his poems. Takuboku died young, in 1912, at the age of twenty-six. Sad Toys, a posthumous tanka collection assembled by his wife and friends, was published that same year.

JOEL TANSEY holds a PhD from the University of California, Davis, and studied at the École normale supérieure. He has taught French language and literature at colleges and universities in California, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts and has published articles in both French and English on art patronage under Louis XIV, and on interrogative rhetoric in Montaigne.

ELIZABETH WELT TRAHAN was born in Berlin, Germany, spent her childhood in Czechoslovakia and the war years in Vienna. Since 1947 she has lived in the United States and has taught German, Russian, and Comparative Literature at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst), the University of Pittsburgh, and Amherst College, as well as being a founder of the School of Translation and Interpretation at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. She is now an independent scholar and writer.

CLAUDE VIGÉE was born at Biscwiller, Alsace, in 1921, into a Jewish family that had settled in the region three centuries earlier. When the Nazis occupied Alsace, he and his family were forced from their home. By now a medical student, he helped organize the Jewish resistance movement in Toulouse during the Vichy period (1940-1942). His first poems were published in the Resistance journal, Poésie 42. In late 1943 he entered the United States as a refugee. There he earned a doctorate in Romance Languages and Literatures and held teaching appointments at Ohio State University and at Brandeis University. In 1950, he published his first book of poems, La lutte avec un ange (Wrestling with an Angel). Other volumes followed and in 1972 a volume of collected poems (1939-1971) entitled, Le soleil sous la mer. In 1970 he arrived in Israel where, as Professor of French and Comparative Literature, he taught at Jerusalem's Hebrew University until his retirement in 1983. Claude Vigée's work has won various prizes both within and outside France.