Biographies of Contributors
FATIMA TABAAMRANT is a highly successful traditional Moroccan singer. She sings and performs in her native Berber tongue.
GALAKTION TABIDZE (1891-1959) is regarded at the most lyrical poet of the Blue Horns movement in Georgian poetry. Unlike his fellow poets Titsian Tabidze and Paolo Iashvili he lived until the end of Stalin's rule. He was however deeply affected by the executions and suicides of his friends. The exile of his wife Olga to Siberia, where she died in 1944, plunged him into a depression from which he never recovered. Galaktion lived the final years of his life in a psychiatric hospital, and died by suicide. The most striking aspect of his legacy, however, is that in spite of his many afflictions he managed to be so productive as a poet, and to produce work of such stunning aesthetic merit. His collected works total twenty volumes and his poems have stamped themselves more deeply on the popular Georgian imagination than those of any other poet.
TITSIAN TABIDZE (1893-1937) is one of the most important Georgian poets of the twentieth century, second in influence only to his poet-cousin Galaktion Tabidze. His work is best known to Russian readers through Boris Pasternak's translations of his poetry, but a great deal of it has yet to be translated into Russian or into any other language. Other important friendships included the Russian poets Sergei Esenin and Andrei Bely, and the Armenian poet Avetik Isaakian. In 1937, during the most intense year of the Soviet purges, Titsian was accused of spying and, because he refused to incriminate his fellow poets, he was shot. To readers familiar with Russian literature, Titsian is most easily comparable to Osip Mandelstam, for his classical imagination, his immense erudition, and his startling capacity to engage politics without sacrificing aesthetic vision.
ANTONIO TABUCCHI (1943-2012) was an Italian writer, translator, and scholar of Portuguese literature. He wrote novels and short stories and translated into Italian the works of Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa.
CORINE TACHTIRIS holds an MFA in literary translation from the University of Iowa and a PhD in Comparative Literature from the University of Michigan. She specializes in the translation of contemporary women writers from the French Caribbean and the Czech Republic.
VÉRONIQUE TADJO, born in Paris of an Ivorian father and a French mother, was raised in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. She lives in Johannesburg, RSA, where she writes (poetry, novels and children's literature) and paints. L'Ombre d'Imana (The Shadow of Imana), published by Actes Sud in 2000, was written as a result of a trip to Rwanda (1998); there she was able to speak with many survivors of the genocide and thus become a witness to the unspeakable horror of what the population has suffered.
PIA TAFDRUP was born in Copenhagen. She made her literary debut in 1980 and has since published nine volumes of poetry that have earned her wide recognition and has issued an audio CD of selected poems. She has also edited two anthologies of contemporary Danish poetry and has published two plays and a volume of poetics. In 1989 she was inducted into the Danish Academy and in 1999 won the Nordic Council Prize for Literature. English versions of her poems have appeared in numerous journals in the U.K., the U.S., and Canada, including ARTES International, Pequod, WRIT, The Spirit That Moves Us, Prism International, Colorado Review, Asylum, and Frank. Her fourth book of poems, Springflod, appeared in English as Spring Tide, trans. Anne Born (London: Forest Books, 1989). Bonniers published a volume of selected poems in Swedish translation (1995). Her work has also been translated into a dozen other languages.
RABINDRANATH TAGORE (1861-1941)—poet, writer, composer, painter and social reformer—was the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize (for Literature), in 1913. He is the author of sixty volumes of poetry, eight novels, about two hundred short stories, nearly two dozen plays, and a mass of prose on philosophy, politics, religion, culture and the arts. He also wrote and composed two thousand songs, and has left behind two thousand five hundred doodles and paintings. Author and composer of the national anthems of both India and Bangladesh, Tagore founded a university, Viswa-bharati, at Shanitiniketan, India, which has produced a Prime Minister (Indira Gandhi), a legendry movie-maker (Satyajit Ray) and a Nobel Laureate in Economics (Amartya Sen).
YOSHIRO TAKAYASU lives in Togane, Chiba, where he edits Village Tsushin. He is the author of several poetry collections, including Mukashi mukashi and Jigenkyo. English translations of his fiction and poetry have appeared in The Dirty Goat, Visions International, and Yomimono.
MASAKO TAKEDA Has edited and translated the poems of Emily Dickinson into Japanese. She teaches at Osaka Shoin Women's College.
ISHIKAWA TAKUBOKU, a master of the tanka (short poem), is one of the most popular poets in all of Japanese literature. The minutiae of daily experience, brought into sharp focus with poignancy and telling detail, make up the content of his poems. Takuboku died young, in 1912, at the age of twenty-six. Sad Toys, a posthumous tanka collection assembled by his wife and friends, was published that same year.
PETRI TAMMINEN is a Finnish author who has written novels, short stories, radio plays, etc.; a movie of one of his books is under preparation. A master of short prose and laconic humor, Tamminen has won many literary awards. In 2006 he was a finalist for the prestigious Finlandia Prize. His work has been translated into numerous languages. Tamminen lives in Finland.
THICAYA U TAM'SI (1931-1988) He is best known in the francophone world for his poetry, though he worked extensively in fiction. His short stories take as their inspiration ancient tribal narratives, which he infuses with the angst of a syncretic, modern world.
FÉLIX TANCO Y BOSMENIEL Born in Santa Fe de Bogotá in 1796, Félix Tanco y Bosmeniel was taken to Cuba by his loyalist parents upon Colombia's independence from Spain. In the Caribbean colony, Tanco joined Domingo del Monte’s literary salon, which fostered the writing of anti-slavery texts as a preliminary step towards the island’s independence from Spain. The most radical member of the del Monte group, both in terms of politics and of literary style, in 1844, Tanco was accused of participating in the British-backed slave rebellion known as the Ladder Conspiracy. Imprisoned for a time by the Spanish colonial government, Tanco later moved to the United States. He died on Long Island in 1871.
KYAMIL TANGALYCHEV Tartar-Russian poet, lives in Saransk, Russia, where he works as a political affairs newspaper editor. An essayist as well on Russian poets and poetry, he has written recently on the idea of a contemporary Tartar metaphor. His poetry was introduced in Sulphur River Literary Review.
TANIZAKI UNICHIRO started out as an avant-garde novelist in Tokyo. But after the great Tokyo earthquake of 1923, he moved to the much older and more traditional Kyoto. There, he was weaned of his infatuation with the West; shortly after his move, he began to write novels, such as Chijin no ai (tr. into English as Naomi), which were grand seriocomic send-ups of the national fetishization of all things Western. After Naomi, he wrote one of several masterpieces he would produce throughout his long and prolific life, Tade kuu mushi, which is a thinly-veiled autobiographical account of a former West-worshipper coming to terms with the richness of his own country's past.
JOEL TANSEY is a retired professor of French Literature and a Five College research associate. He was a visiting research fellow at the Institute of the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland (2005-06), as well as at the Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies (2006-08). He is the co-translator of Euripides's Hecuba (1995), and the author of several articles and essays in journals and books, including such topics as Montaigne's use of rhetoric, the translation of medieval French poetry, the use of questions in Hamlet, and seventeenth-century French theatre and political power, among others.
ARSENY TARKOVSKY (1907-1989), along with his older contemporaries Anna Akhmatova and Marina Tsvetaeva (whose protégé he was), is now generally considered one of the preeminent poets to come out of the Soviet era. Unable to publish his first collection until his mid-fifties because of Soviet censorship, he was known for many decades mainly as a translator of Asian poetry. His verse eventually received wider attention in part by appearing in the films of his son Andrei. Tarkovsky's poetry is at once intensely personal and broadly metaphysical, often turning to the natural world and dreamlike imagery (some of which is evoked similarly in visual form by his son), drawing heavily on rhythm and allusion, and sprinkled with colloquialisms of the Elisavetgrad region (now Kirovohrad, central Ukraine) where he grew up.
ZULMIRA RIBEIRO TAVARES is based in Säo Paulo, Brazil. She is an award-winning writer of fiction and non-fiction, whose works include: Termos de Comparaçäo (1974), awarded the prize in literature by the Säo Paulo Association of Art Critics; O Japonês dos Olhos Redondos (1982), a short story collection; O Nome do Bispo (1985), a novel that received the Mercedes-Benz Prize in Literature and has been translated into German; O Mandril (1988), a collection of poems and short prose pieces; the novella Jóias de Família (1990), which was awarded Brazil's highest literary honor, the Jabuti Prize, for best author and best novel and has been translated into German and Italian; and the novel Café Pequeno (1995). The short prose pieces from Cortejo em Abril (1998) included in this volume are among the first to be translated into English.
KHALED MAHMOUD TAWFIK is Associate Professor of Translation and Linguistics, Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University. His interests include text translation, applied linguistics and text linguistics. He has authored 17 books on translation and language (Arabic and English) and translated 12 books (from English into Arabic).
MICHAEL TAYLOR recently completed a new translation of the Odes of Horace. He is the author of Rembrandt’s Nose and a number of other books. He lives in Southwest France.
ESAIAS TEGNÉR (1782-1846) one of the great Swedish romantic poets, was Professor of Classics at Lund, the author of the wildly popular cycle of poems Frithiofs Saga, and later as Bishop of Växjö, Tegnér seemed to fulfill all his early promises. But in 1825 a romantic entanglement led to a breakdown and crushing depression from which he never fully recovered. He wrote a few good poems afterwards, but his reputation as a fine stylist and humorist is based on work completed before 1825.
HERMAN TEIRLINCK, born in 1879, is one of the foremost writers of Flemish prose and drama. Early in his career, he became a contributor to Van Nu en Straks, a Flemish journal with international aspirations. Between the two World Wars, Teirlinck devoted himself exclusively to theatre, producing a number of innovative, expressionistic plays and renovating theatrical education in Flanders with the theories of Richard Wagner, Adolphe Appia, Edward Gordon Craig, and Konstantin Stanislavsky. Today an important Flemish actors' training studio is named after him. His most important prose works are Mijnheer J. B. Serjanszoon (1908), Het ivoren aapje (1909; The Ivory Monkey), Maria Speermalie and Rolande met de bles (both vitalistic works, written during WWII), and Zelfportret of het Galgemaal (1955, translated as The Man in the Mirror). Although heavily influenced by French Symbolism and the Belgian fin-de-siècle, he was constantly reinventing himself in an astonishing number of literary styles. He died in 1967, having been the recipient of major Belgian and international awards. In the 1960s and 1970s, nine volumes of his collected works were published, edited by Willem Pée.
HERNANDO TELLEZ (1908-1966) was born in Bogotá. One of the most notable Colombian intellectuals of the twentieth century, he was a writer, essayist, literary critic, and journalist. Téllez entered the world of journalism very early and wrote for some of Colombia's most respected newspapers and magazines. He is the author of nine collections of essays and other books of nonfiction. His short story collection Cenizas al viento (Ashes to the Wind) was first published in 1950. "Lather and Nothing Else" is from this collection.
MARINA TEMKINA (1948- ) Born in Leningrad, emigrated in 1978, currently lives in New York. Main books of poetry include A Part of a Part (1985), Backwards (1989), Watchtower (1995).
DOMENICO TEMPIO (1750-1820) was born in Catania, the son of a lumber merchant. Destined for the priesthood by his father, he left the seminary in 1773. His father then set him on the path to a career in law, but this attempt also failed. He soon became very popular for his wit in the local salon of Ignazio Paterno' Prince of Biscari. Domenico Tempio deserves consideration as the major poetic voice in Sicilian reform, contemporaneous with that of Giuseppe Parini in Lombardy. The language he chose for his literary works was Sicilian to confirm a long tradition of an autonomous language and literature. Tempio's 'fabliaux,' where pastoral images are mixed with the harshness of reality, denounce human vices and aim at a moral renaissance.
SHUJI TERAYAMA (1935–1983), an icon of avant-garde and counter-culture in Japanese, is a world famous dramatist, film director, photographer and writer. The critically acclaimed works of his anti-establishment underground theatre troupe, Tenjoh Sajiki, as well as his award-winning experimental films, Death in the Country (1974) and Farewell to the Ark (1984), cemented him as the one of the world’s leading artists in the Post-War period. In his earlier days, he also wrote poems and tanka, which are now well-loved by Japanese readers.
ALEXANDER TEREKHOV Has been cited in a recent issue of the New Yorker as one of the foremost representatives of contemporary Russian letters.
ARTHUR TERRY has been Professor of Spanish at the Queen's University (Belfast) and Professor of Literature (Emeritus since 1993) at the University of Essex. His books include a bilingual edition La poesia de Joan Maragall (1963), A Literary History of Spain: Catalan Literature (1972), Ausias March: Selected Poems (1976; original texts and translation), Quatre poestes catalans: Ferrater, Brossa, Gimferrer, Xirau (1976), Joan Maragall, Antologia Poètica (1981), Sobre poesia catalana contemporània: Riba, Foix, Espriu (1985), and numerous other publications on Catalan and Spanish literature, including translations from Gabriel Ferrater and other Catalan poets. He was President of the Anglo-Catalan Society from 1963-68 and edited the Society's collaborative Homage to Joan Gili: Forty Modern Catalan Poems with English Prose Translations (1987). He was President of the Associació Internacional de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes from 1982-88 and of the British Comparative Literature Association from 1986-92. For his work as a critic and historian of Catalan literature and for his services to Catalan culture, he was awarded the Creu de Sant Jordi (Cross of St. George) by the Generalitat de Catalunya in 1982 and the International Ramon Llull Prize by the Generalitat and the Institute of Catalan Studies in 1995.
PATRICIA TERRY, having received a doctorate from Columbia University in medieval French literature, served as Professor of French literature at Barnard College in New York and then at the University of California San Diego. She retired in 1991. Her publications include, inter alia, translations of Jules Laforgue, poetry of the Vikings, and the Chanson de Roland, as well as an adaptation of an Arthurian tale, Lancelot and the Lord of the Distant Isles, written in collaboration with Samuel N. Rosenberg.
ALFRED THOMAS is the John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Humanities at Harvard University. He teaches Czech literature and culture and is the author of The Czech Chivalric Romances: Vévoda Arnost and Lavryn in Their Context; The Labyrinth of the World: Truth and Representation in Czech Literature and of Anne's Bohemia (Czech Literature and Society, 1310-1420). His translation of the medieval Czech masterpiece, Life of St. Catherine, will appear in print this fall.
R.S. THOMAS (1913-2000) has been recognized in Wales as "quite simply our pre-eminent poet writing in the English language" and "one of the most uncompromising, purest, and most sustained lyric voices of his century." His poetry has been characterized as "slate-hard and sharp," "spare," "unflinching," "honest." His first book of poetry, The Stones of the Field, was published in 1946, to be followed by another book every three or four years since. His Collected Poems 1945-1990 was published in 1993 by Dent and his autobiography Neb was published in Welsh in 1985; Autobiographies appeared in English in 1997.
KATRINA DALY THOMPSON is a Kiswahili instructor and Ph.D. student in the Department of African Languages and Literature at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. She specializes in Zimbabwean and Tanzanian literatures and popular cultures. For the past five years she has been the Editor of Voices: The Wisconsin Review of African Languages and Literatures.
PETER THOMPSON teaches modern languages and literature at Roger Williams U. His books include Late Liveries, (poetry, 2000), Daybreak and New Words, (song lyrics, 1996, 1998). More recently he has translated Léon-Paul Fargue's Poèmes (2003), Véronique Tadjo's first book of poetry, Red Earth (2006), and Nabile Farès's Escuchando tu historia (2008). He has edited two anthologies of francophone literature, and translated the Spanish folksong anthology Vamos a cantar. He edits Ezra: An Online Journal of Translation.
REBECCA L. THOMPSON is a second-year doctoral student at the University of Texas at Dallas focusing on 19th- and 20th-century Russian literature, war and conflict literature, and hermeneutics. She is also a translator of Russian and French texts and has contributed to publications in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.
ROLAND THORSTENSSON is professor of Scandinavian Studies and Swedish at Gustavus Adolphus College. He developed a course on Sami culture after spending a year in Tromsoe, Norway. While there he collaborated as a translator with Harald Gaski on an anthology of Sami prose and poetry: In the Shadow of the Midnight Sun.
MÄRTA TIKKANNEN (b. 1935) A Finland-Swedish poet, journalist, playwright, teacher, novelist, who lives in Helsinki. She has published novels and poetry since 1970 dealing largely with women's lives and conflicts. Only two of her works have been translated into English: The Love Story of a Century, for which she received the Nordic Prize, and Manrape.
LASZLO TIKOS is Professor Emeritus of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Massachusetts (Amherst), Founding Editor-in-Chief of Metamorphoses. At present he publishes an internet blog, www.gogol-tikos.com together with Elena Gorsheneva.
JILL TIMBERS is a professional Finnish-English translator. Her literary translations have appeared in anthologies and journals, including With Signs and Wonders, Connecting Souls, Two Lines, Words without Borders, and World Literature Today. She is presently translating a novel by Antti Tuuri. She and her Finnish husband live in Illinois.
GRÁINNE TOBIN grew up in Armagh and now lives in Newcastle, Co Down, where she worked until 2010 as assistant head of an integrated state secondary school. She has two published collections with Summer Palace Press: Banjaxed, 2001, and The Nervous Flyer's Companion, 2010.
ELI TOLARETXIPI born in San Sebastián in 1962, studied English philology and is a translator and poet. She is the author of two collections of poetry: Amor muerto, Naturaleza muerta (1999) and Los lazos del número (2003).
NICOLAU TOLENTINO (1740-1811) considered Portugal's greatest satiric or comic poeet. A sagacious chronicler of his times, he is most valued for the lively gallery of types with which he depicted the human comedy of eighteenth century Lisbon.
CHRIS TONG is a doctoral candidate in Comparative Literature at the University of California, Davis. He holds an MFA in Creative Writing and specializes in Chinese-to-English translation. His most recent translations are forthcoming in Literary History of Taiwan (Columbia University Press).
FRIEDRICH TORBERG (1908-1979) was born in Vienna as Friedrich Ephraim Kantor, son of a well-to-do Jewish family. The death and funeral of Emperor Francis Joseph was one of the formative events of his childhood. After the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire, his family moved to Prague in 1921. Torberg was writing—and being published—throughout his high school years, but failed to pass the rigorous exit exam (Matura). The experience became the basis of his first novel, Der Schueler Gerber (Pupil Gerber), an international success. Torberg began to write for the German-language Prager Tagblatt in the late 1920s, served as the paper's culture correspondent for Vienna, wrote for other magazines and newspapers, and also published three more novels before being forced into exile by Hitler's annexation of Austria. After dangerous and difficult times in France and Portugal, he was able to travel to the United States as one of "Ten Outstanding German Anti-Nazi Writers" sponsored by American aid committees. He spent time in New York and Los Angeles, was part of the exiled German-language communities in both cities, and wrote prodigiously. He returned to Vienna in 1951, became culture correspondent for major German newspapers, published several volumes of theater critiques, and edited the literary magazine Oesterrichische Monatsblaetter fuer kulturelle Freiheit from 1954-1965. Torberg saved an unpublished, quirky Austrian writer from oblivion by working on the literary estate of and finally publishing Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando in 1963. Torberg's outstanding translations secured the German-language fame of Israeli satirist Ephraim Kishon. While Torberg's later works of fiction were not as successful as the novels of his youth, he became known to a wider public and indeed a "best seller" with two volumes of anecdotal memoirs, Die Tante Jolesch (Aunt Jolesch) in 1975 and Die Erben der Tante Jolesch (Heirs of Aunt Jolesch) in 1978. In describing "two definitely vanished ingredients of Western civilization: the imperial and royal monarchy and her Jewish bourgeoisie" he resurrected the flavor of the long-gone Habsburg monarchy through use of th enow slightly outdated, German cultivated by its upper echelons—and the various imitations of that cadence by its many peoples.
CHRISTINA DE LA TORRE was born in Cuba, and has lived in Atlanta and taught at Emory University most of her adult life. She has translated four novels and many pieces of short fiction from Spanish into English from authors such as Carme Riera, Rosa Montero, Angeles Mastretta, Jorge Volpi, Alejandro Aguilar, and Nancy Alonso. She has been the recipient of various academic distinctions, including a Howard Foundation Fellowship for translation.
XOHANA TORRES (Santiago de Compostela, 1931) spent her childhood and adolescence in Ferrol (NW Galicia). She took an active part in cultural and literary activities in Ferrol, writing for the radio and working as an actress. She is well known for her feminism. Since 2001 she has been a member of the Real Academia Galega.
A writer of fiction, essays, and translations, J. T. TOWNLEY has published in Collier's, Experienced: Rock Music Tales of Fact & Fiction, Harvard Review, The Oxonian Review of Books, Prairie Schooner, The Threepenny Review, and other places. A former Fulbright Scholar to France, he holds an MFA in Creative Writing from the University of British Columbia and an MPhil in English from Oxford University, and he teaches at the University of Virginia.
ELIZABETH WELT TRAHAN was born in Berlin, Germany, spent her childhood in Czechoslovakia and the war years in Vienna. Since 1947 she has lived in the United States and has taught German, Russian, and Comparative Literature at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst), the University of Pittsburgh, and Amherst College, as well as being a founder of the School of Translation and Interpretation at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. She is now an independent scholar and writer.
ALAN TREI is an American of Estonian ancestry who has worked in advertising in the United States and Europe. A graduate of Columbia and Harvard Business School, he has written plays and articles and done commercial translation into English for Estonian companies.
LARRY TREMBLAY is a Québécois writer, director, and actor, who has published twenty books as a novelist, playwright, poet, and essayist. His works of fiction include Anna á la lettre (1992), Le Mangeur de bicyclette (2002; trans. The Bicycle Eater, 2005), Piercing (2006), and Le Christ obèse (2012). Talking Bodies (Talonbooks, 2001) brought together four of his plays in English translation. One of Québec’s most versatile writers, Tremblay currently teaches at the Université de Québec à Montréal.
ARMINDO TREVISAN is a Brazilian poet, critic and art historian. He was born in Santa Maria, RS, in 1933. In 1964 he was awarded the Prêmio Nacional de Poesia Gonçalves Dias for his book A Surpresa de Ser. In 2001, Trevisan published his Nova Antologia Poética (1967-2001). He lives in Porto Alegre.
CARLOS TRIGUEIRO was born in Manaus, Brazil in 1943. He is the author of three novels, O Clube dos Feios, O Livro das Ciumes, and O Livro dos Desmandamentos, as well as a book-length memoir, Memorias da Liberdade. He is a recipient of the Premio Malba Tahan, awarded by the Academia Carioca de Letras/Uniao Brasileira de Escritores for O Livro das Ciumes, and the Premio Adonias Filho for his latest work, O Livro dos Desmandamentos. Retired in 1996 from a thirty-two year career at Banco do Brasil, where he served as a senior officer in locales as disparate as Rome, Macau, Madrid and Chicago, he currently resides in Rio de Janeiro, where he devotes himself to writing fiction full-time. www.carlostrigueiro.com.
ANNA WING BO TSO received her PhD in Applied Linguistics from The University of Birmingham, U.K. in 2010. She is currently Assistant Professor of English and Comparative Literature at The Open University of Hong Kong, where she directs the Digital Humanities Research Centre and leads the English Cultural Literacy team. Her recent books include Teaching Shakespeare to ESL Students: The Study of Language Arts in Four Major Plays (co-authored with Lau), Springer, 2016; and Academic Writing for Arts and Humanities Students, McGraw-Hill Education, 2016.
YUMIKO TSUMURA was born and educated in Japan. After entering the PhD program at Kwansei Gakuin University, she moved to The University of Iowa to complete an MFA in Poetry and Translation at the Writer's Workshop. She has taught in universities in Japan and in America, and is currently a professor of Japanese at Foothill College. She has published original poems in English in various literary journals, and has collaborated with Samuel Grolmes in the translation of modern Japanese poetry and fiction. Her publications include Poetry of Ryuichi Tamura, (1998), Tamura Ryuichi Poems 1946-1998 (2000), and a collection of translations of the poetry of Kazuko Shiraishi, Let Those Who Appear, New Directions, 2002.
MARINA I. TSVETAEVA (1892-1941) Foremost female Russian poet of the twentieth century. Her staccato style and innovations pushed language to its logical limits. Her many references to Russian, German, French, Classical Literature, and History made her less widely known than her contemporary Anna Akhmatova. She lived most of her adult life as an émigré with an undisguised animosity towards her former home, the Soviet Union. This kept her out of reach for most Russian readers. She returned to the Soviet Union in 1939, following her husband, Sergei Efron. In 1941 she was evacuated from Moscow to a Tartar village (Yeelabuga). Penniless and in total isolation, she hanged herself. Since the fall of Communism, her work has returned to Russia.
SARAH J. TURTLE holds a BA in Modern Languages. She taught English as a foreign language in the Basque Country for over twenty-two years before becoming a free-lance translator.