Biographies of Contributors
AMIN MAALOUF is one of the most respected writers in the world whose works have become international best sellers and recipients of widespread critical acclaim. Having first come into prominence by deconstructing cultural stereotypes about the Middle East and the West in The Crusades through Arab Eyes (1983), Maalouf went on to write In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong (1998) that drew its inspiration from the Lebanese civil war. His more recent Disordered World (2011) examines tensions between East and West and the global challenges faced by both in the twenty-first century. Describing himself as "irrémédiablement minoritaire, irrémédiablement étranger", Maalouf is a transcultural exile who calls for a new, more encompassing conception of national identity. His fictional works include such compelling historical novels as Samarkand and Ports of Call that blend history with fantasy and philosophy. In recent years, much of Maalouf's time has been devoted to writing operatic librettos such as L'Amour de loin (2001) and it may be this innovative genre that will be recognized as his finest literary contribution. The subject of this libretto, which later inspired the poems "Quatre instants" ("Four moments"), is the love of a twelfth century Provençal troubadour for a Lebanese countess living across the Mediterranean Sea in Tripoli. Although Maalouf revisits the simple medieval tale, he infuses his graceful lyrics with modern themes such as a blending of dream and reality, alienation and exoticism that make these some of his most powerful literary works.
CARLY MABERRY graduated from Smith College with a BA in English Language and Literature in May 2008. She was the editorial, production, and web management assistant for Metamorphoses from July 2007 through May 2008, and the production editor for both 2008 issues. After working as a STRIDE intern at the Poetry Center at Smith College, she spent a year as a student in Cork, Ireland. She plans to be a freelance web designer and publishing consultant while writing her first book, a study of Sylvia Plath and identity, based on her senior project.
JOAQUIM MARIA MACHADO DE ASSIS (1839-1908) is widely considered the greatest Brazilian novelist. He was born in Rio de Janeiro and lived almost all of his life there. While his novels and short stories are among his most well known works, he also published volumes of poetry, dramas, essays, and crônicas. The 1880 publication of Machado's novel As Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas (Epitaph of a Small Winner) marked a clear departure from the style of high romanticism that had characterized his earlier novels. The playful first person narration of Memórias Póstumas is surprisingly modern; it integrates elements of the fantastic, narrative self-awareness and digression, and a radical reassessment of the relationship between author, narrator, and reader. After 1880, Machado published four other novels–notably Quincas Borba (1891) and Dom Casmurro (1899)–and five volumes of short stories that have been compared favorably to those of Kafka, Joyce, and Borges. Machado's literary accomplishments seem even more astounding when viewed in light of his upbringing: he was the grandson of freed slaves, did not even complete grammar school, and lived most of his adult life–until abolition in 1888–in a slaveholding society. In 1896 he founded the Brazilian Academy of Letters and was elected its first president the following year, a position he held until his death. He died in 1908 at his home in Rio de Janeiro and was given a state funeral.
ELENA MACLACHLAN Currently a member of the Italian Department at Smith College. She recently completed her doctoral studies with a dissertation on narrative strategies in the poetry of Chiara Matraini. She has published translations in Dædalus, The Atlantic, Harper's, Paris Review and other magazines.
JAMES MACPHERSON (1736-96) Son of a Scottish farmer, he was educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh Universities. In 1760 he published the first of his "Fragments of Ancient Poetry Collected in the Highlands of Scotland and Translated from the Gaelic or Erse Language." These were much admired throughout Europe but were soon pronounced by Gaelic scholars to be fraudulent. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
MITKO MADUNKOV (b. 1943 in Strumica, southeastern Macedonia) graduated from the Department of Literature and Literary Theory in Belgrade. His numerous publications include six collections of short stories, three novels, and five plays. His novels The Hedge of the World (1984) and To the Other Country (1993) each won prestigious national awards. "The Bombing" is from his most recent collection, The Tree of Narajana (1998). He lives in Belgrade, where he works in the Public Library.
CARMEN MAGALLON-PORTOLES At the University of Zaragosa, she became engaged in the student struggle against Franco and has remained a political activist ever since. She has published several collections of poetry in her native Spanish.
ADI MAHALEL is a doctoral candidate in Yiddish and Hebrew Literature at Columbia University. His thesis is on the Yiddish and Hebrew writer I.L. Peretz. Other areas of interest include Yiddish poetry, Modern Hebrew Literature, Jewish American theatre and literature, Modern Jewish Politics, and Israeli Yiddish literature. He has taught courses in Yiddish language and culture at Columbia University, at the YIVO Institute, and has given various guest lectures and seminars concerning his areas of interest. He is also a regular contributor to the Yiddish Forward.
Little is known about MAHIEU LE JUIF (Matthew the Jew) except that, as he indicates in each poem, he was a convert to Christianity, apparently out of love for a Christian woman. The longer of the two pieces, usually regarded as a satirical song, was one one of the most widely circulated poems in the entire trouvère repertory (12th and 13th centuries).
CIRCE MAIA (1932- ) teaches philosophy, and is a translator and distinguished poet in her native Uruguay, where she was recently honored by the National Academy of Letters. She has translated Shakespeare, Kavafis, Ritsos and Elytis. Maia's language does not represent an external reality but rather shapes consciousness and perception. Her poems inhabit a permanent state of ambiguity between being and existence. Her words are utterances of time, reality, and (dis)continuities, as intimated in the titles of her "poemarios" [poetry collections]: Breve sol (2001), De lo visible (1998), Superficies (1990), Destrucciones [Destructions] (1986), Dos voces (1981), Cambios, permanencias [Changes, Permanencies] (1978), El puente (1970), Presencia diaria [Daily Presence] (1964), En el tiempo [In Time] (1958), and Plumitas (1944).
TED MAIER Teaching associate and doctoral candidate at Miami University, where he specializes in nineteenth and twentieth century American literature. With Alicia Cabiedes-Fink he is collaborating on an anthology of contemporary women poets of Ecuador, with whom he has published translations in Puerto del sol, Collages and Bricolages, International Poetry Review, Mr. Cogito, and Asylum.
SYLVIA MAIZELL has studied Russian Literature at the University of Chicago, in Moscow and Saint Petersburg and has taught Russian for many years. For the past decade she has worked as a translator from Russian, primarily of published émigré writers, among them Emil Draitser, Felix Roziner, Azari Messurer, Vladimir Matlin, and Ludmila Petrushevskaya.
BRONISLAW MAJ (1953- ) is a poet, journalist, and actor. He teaches Polish literature at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, and edits the journal Na Glos. He is one of the finest Polish poets to emerge in the 1980s. The poems translated here are from his collection Swiatlo (A Light, 1994).
WENCESLAO MALDONADO was born in Argentina in 1940, and studied there and in Italy, receiving his doctorate in Trieste. He now teaches Classics in Buenos Aires. He has published several books of poems and short stories, including La estación necesaria, El hombre herido, Tierra intranquila, Dioses del deseo antiguo, Ceremonial de una familia oscura, Arquitectura gótica, and Fronteras.
KALINA MALESKA is pursuing postgraduate studies at the University of Skopje, from which she holds a degree in English. She has published translations of short stories and poems from English into Madeonian.
WAFA MALIH was born in Bouzkarn, Morocco on July 21, 1975. In 2004, she published a collection of short stories, I'tirafaat Rajul Waqih (Confessions of an Impudent Man), followed by her first novel, 'Indama Yabki al-Rijal (When Men Cry), in 2007. Her book reviews have appeared in Moroccan newspapers and journals. She currently lives in the capital, Rabat, where she works as a journalist.
BODIL MALMSTEN One of the most popular poets in Sweden, she lives in Stockholm.
ALAN MANDELBAUM Famed for his many translations from the Classics, including Ovid's Metamorphoses (1993), and various Italian poets, he is a professor at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem.
OSIP MANDELSHTAM (1891-1938), poet and essayist, was one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of Russian poets. Arrested twice under Stalin in the 1930s, he was first sent into internal exile and then sentenced to a camp in Siberia. He died in a transit camp in 1938.
ROALD MANDELSTAM (1932-1961) died of tuberculosis and intestinal hemorrhage at the age of 28; his work was published only after his death. He was rediscovered by Mikhail Shemiakin, who published his poetry in his almanac Apollon-77, and K. Kuz'minskii, who selected what he thought was the best of R. Mandelstam's poetry in the anthology U Goluboi Laguny (At the Blue Lagoon. Newtonville, MA: Oriental Research Partners, 1980). From 1982 to 1997 four books of Roald Mandelstam's Poems have been published, one in Israel and 4 in Russia, including Complete Poems compiled and edited by the poet's sister, Helene Petrov-Mandelshtam, (St Petersburg: Ivan Limbakh Publishing, 2006).
EEVA-LIISA MANNER (b. 1921) One of Finland's leading writers. She is a poet, dramatist, critic, and translator. Among her eleven collections of poetry are Orfiset Laulut (Songs of Orpheus), Farenheit 121, and Kuolleet Vedet (Dead Waters). Täma Mätka (This Journey), 1956, became one of the most influential books of poetry for the Finnish modernist movement. Her many translations, from English, German, Spanish, and Swedish include Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Herman Hesse, and Tomas Transtromer. She is the recipient of numerous awards.
SAADAT HASSAN MANTO (1912-1955) is perhaps the most notable modern fiction writer from South Asia. During his lifetime, his work was the source of much controversy, including a number of obscenity trials, and he remains a figure of much interest to readers in South Asia and abroad. Originally from the Punjab, he moved to Bombay as a young man, where he lived the best years of his short life, working for the emerging film industry as a writer, and rubbing shoulders with seminal cultural figures in the last phase of colonial Bombay's cosmopolitan life.
SALGADO MARANHÃO has published ten books of poetry and has made many CDs with Brazil's greatest popular musicians and singers. In 2012 he published Blood of the Sun with Milkweed Editions and gave fifty two presentations during a 90 day reading tour with his translator, Alexis Levitin. In September 2015, Tiger Fur, his second book to appear in the USA, will be published by White Pine Press. His most recent book, Mapping the Tribe, has just won the Brazilian PEN Club award for best book of poetry for the year 2014.
JIM MARANIS Head and Professor of Spanish, Amherst College, and a member of the Metamorphoses Editorial Board.
MANUEL MARÍA (Outeiro do Rei, 1929 - 2004) published a large number of poetry books and novels and played an important role in Galician nationalist politics. He died in 2004, a year after becoming a member of the Real Academia Galega.
MARIA-MERCÉ MARÇAL had several volumes of poetry to her credit when she died of cancer in 1998, at the age of forty-six. She wrote a number of essays as well, a few stories, and a novel based on the biography and work of Pauline Mary Tarn, poet of American birth and French expression, known by her pen name, Renée Vivien. One of Marçal's early works is a collection of fifteen sestinas, in which she successfully uses the medieval form for modern preoccupations and imagery.
ANNA MARGOLIN Born in Russia in 1894, she arrived in New York City at the age of eighteen; she led a tempestuous and unconventional life. Her writings won her critical acclaim, but little public recognition. She died, a recluse, in 1952.
CHRISTIANE MARKS was born in Germany in 1938 and came to America in 1947, but German continued to be the family language. She attended Earlham College and the Free University of Berlin, earning a B.A. in Comparative Literature—French, German, and English, and went on for an M.A. in German Literature at the University of Cincinnati, writing her thesis on issues involved in translating Kafka. She was a member of the American Translators' Association for many years and translated numerous articles and two books, mainly on anthroposophical subjects. The translation of Rilke's “Sonnets to Orpheus” has been her special project for some time and translations from that cycle have come out in various literary magazines. Six of them appeared in the spring 2003 issue of International Poetry Review, and three were included in an anthology of horse poetry: Cadence of Hooves, Yarroway Mountain Press, 2008.
ALTAIR MARTINS was born in 1975 in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. He is a novelist and a short story writer who has received prestigious national and international literary prizes. Among these are the Sao Paulo Prize in Literature in 2009 for his A parede no escuro and the RFI/Guimaraes Rosa Prize in 1994. In 2011 he published Enquanto agua. He has also published anthologies of short stories and of journalistic essays: Como se moesse ferro, Se choverem passaros, and Dentro do olho dentro. He has also won the Luis Vilela Prize, the Josue Guimaraes National Short Story Competition, the Jornada Nacional de Literatura Prize, and the Acorianos in the short story category. He also earned a position as a finalist for the 2003 Jabuti Prize in the chronicle category.
MARGARET MCCLUMPHA MARK Smith College '45, has lived abroad for much of her life and is married to a retired Foreign Service Officer from Hungary. For many years she worked as a simultaneous interpreter, primarily for the State Department, which, she says, is better than riding a bicycle. She has lived in Europe, Indonesia, and South America, and now resides in High Meadow, Connecticut.
COREY MARKS is a poet whose first book, Renunciation, was a National Poetry Series selection published by University of Illinois Press. His recent poems appear in New England Review, Ploughshares, Southwest Review, Subtropics, The Threepenny Review, TriQuarterly, The Virginia Quarterly Review, and in the anthology Legitimate Dangers. He teaches at the University of North Texas.
FRANCESCO MARRONI, born in Italy in 1949, is Professor of English Literature at the University of Pescara, where he is Director of the Center for Victorian and Edwardian Studies (C.U.S.V.E.). He is also Editor-in-Chief of the following academic journals: Merope, Rivista di Studi Vittoriani and Traduttologia. He is member of the editorial board of The Gaskell Society Journal (Manchester). His books include La verità difficile: Uno studio sui romanzi di George Eliot (Bologna, 1980); Invito alla lettura di Henry James (Milan, 1983); La fabbrica nella valle: Saggio sulla narrativa di Elizabeth Gaskell (Bari, 1987); La poesia di Thomas Hardy (Bari, 1997); Spettri senza nome. Modelli epistemici e narrativa vittoriana (Pescara, 1997); Disarmonie vittoriane: Rivisitazioni del canone della narrativa inglese dell'Ottocento (Rome, 2002) and Miti e mondi vittoriani: La cultura inglese dell'Ottocento (Rome, 2004). He has edited works by George Orwell (1982), Thomas Hardy (1991, 2000), E. L. Doctorow (1993), Henry James (1994), Walter Scott (1994, 2004), R. L. Stevenson (2000), and Nathaniel Hawthorne (2003). He has translated narrative works by Washington Irving, Elizabeth Gaskell, George Gissing, G. B. Shaw, and George Eliot. Also a writer of fiction, Marroni has published four collections of short stories: Silverdale (Palermo, 2000), Brughiere (Bari, 2002), Il silenzio dell'Escorial (Bari, 2002) and Finisterre (Pescara, 2004). A new collection of short stories, Vedute di Manchester, is due out by the beginning of 2006. He has authored a campus novel, Il fantasma di Rembrandt, which is forthcoming.
LOURDES MANYÉ I MARTÍ is from Barcelona, where she received a BA in English. She received an MA in American Literature (1990) and an MA in Spanish Literature (1991) from the University of South Carolina, where she is working on a PhD in Comparative Literature. She currently teaches Spanish at Furman University. She translated Richard Russo's Mohawk and Ford Madox Ford's The Good Soldier into Catalan, and is now translating Miquel Martí i Pol with her husband, Wayne Cox.
ANNABEL MARTIN was born in New Jersey in 1961, and spent her youth in Bilbao. A graduate of the University of Deusto in Bilbao, she earned her PhD in Spanish and Comparative Literature from North Carolina State University, and has since taught at North Carolina State and Emory College. She is currently an Assistant Professor of Spanish and Portuguese at Dartmouth College.
EILISH MARTIN was born in Belfast in April 1945. She graduated from Trinity College Dublin and has taught in London and Belfast. She was shortlisted for a Hennessy Award in 1995 and has two collections, Slitting the tongues of jackdaws (1999) and Ups Bounce Dash (2008), published by Summer Palace Press.
JOSEPA MARTÍNEZ I ALBERT was born in Guadassuar (Valencia) in 1942. She holds an MA in the Theory and Practice of Literary Translation from Essex University in England, an MA in Pedagogy, and a degree in Modern Philology from the University of Valencia. At present, she holds a chair in English at the Escola Oficial d'Idiomes in Valencia. She has translated into Catalan several short stories by Poe as well as essays and poetry, and into Spanish material on modern art, and, most recently Viajeros Británicos por la Valencia de la Ilustración (siglo XVIII), in the series "Asi nos vieron" (Ajuntaent de València, 1996).
YZABELLE MARTINEAU (PhD, McGill University) has taught French literature and Quebec culture in the University of Western Ontario. She works as a translator and editor for various publishing houses in Quebec and teaches Quebec literature and culture at Concordia University (Montreal). She has just published a book on plagiarism, Le faux littéraire: Plagiat littéraire, intertextualité et dialogisme (Quebec, Nota Bene, 2002). She has also published articles on plagiarism and New-Caledonian literature.
LUCIFERO MARTINI was born in 1916, in Fiume (Istria). An anti-Fascist Partisan, he was one of the intellectuals who spearheaded a literary and cultural movement in Istria after WWII, to preserve an Italian cultural presence in the newly-formed Yugoslavia. In addition to poetry, he also collected and edited testimonial narratives of Istriot Italians in the 1940s.
MARIA LÚCIA MILLÉO MARTINS Born and educated in the south of Brazil, is currently on a PhD program at UMass. In 1992, she was awarded a Fulbright scholarship to do research on Elizabeth Bishop's special collections in Vassar and Harvard, a scholarship renewed in 1994. She is collaborating as a translator and editor of an Anthology of Contemporary American Poets (bilingual), 1997 (U. Federal de Sta. Catarina).
HARRY MARTINSSON (1904-1978) was one of the two Nobel Prize laureates in literature in 1974. After three decades as a poet and prose writer of exceptional claims upon the imagination and affections of his Swedish readership, he published in 1956 his 103-poem sequence Aniara. It was published, in a revised edition in 1999 by Story Line Press, Ashland, Oregon.
MARIO MATERASSI is Professor of Literature of the United States at the University of Florence, where he has also directed the Department of Modern Philology. His scholarly publications include two books on Faulkner (I romanzi di Faulkner, 1968; Faulkner, ancora, 2003); on African American literature and culture (Mississippi: documenti della resistenza afroamericana, 1971; Voci nere, 1975; Il ponte sullo Harlem River, 1977); on Jewish American writers (Rothiana: Henry Roth nella critica italiana, 1985; Scrittori ebrei americani, 2 vols., 1989; Figlie di Sarah, 1996). He has edited works by James Baldwin (1968); Melville (1969); Henry Roth (Shifting Landscape: A Composite, Philadelphia 1987), Cynthia Ozick (1990), Hugh Nissenson (1991), photographer C.F. Lummis (1991), Kate Chopin (1993), Roberta Kalechofsky (1995, 1998), Faulkner (8 volumes), Toni Morrison (2003). He has published essays on Melville, Hemingway, Steinbeck, Mailer, Bowles, Hillerman, Cesare Pavese, Moravia, Tomasi di Lampedusa, and many others; on Chicano literature (Anaya, Leo Romero); on the detective novel in the Southwest; a book on New York (Il baco nella mela, 1981). His translations include Roth's Call It Sleep, Faulkner's As I Lay Dying and Soldiers' Pay (also, forthcoming, Sanctuary and Light in August), Ford's The Good Soldier, Mailer's Advertisements for Myself, Ozick's The Messiah of Stockholm. Also a writer of short fiction, Materassi has published two collections of short stories which have won critical acclaim: Il romitorio (1989) and I malaccompagnati (2000). In 1998, in collaboration with American artist John Giannotti, he published Toccando i muri/Touching the walls. Two of his stories have been anthologized, and two won first and second prize, respectively, in national competitions. He has also published stories in English, in The Quarterly (1995), Blue Mesa Review (1995), and Italian Quarterly (1998). Notizie dell'ora morta, a new collection, is due out in the spring of 2004. It will include "Niente di personale."
BEVERLY MATHERNE has two bilingual chapbooks: Je me souviens de la Louisiane (March Street Press) and Images cadiennes (Ridgewood Press). Widely published in journals, including Kansas Quarterly, Squaw Review, and Verse, she is on the writing faculty of Northern Michigan University.
MARIA MATIOS, born in the Bukovyna region near the Romanian border in 1959, is one of Ukraine's most prominent writers. She is the author of six books of poetry and fourteen books of prose, most recently Torn Pages from an Autobiography (2010), for which she endured persecution by elements of the Yanukovych regime. Her novel Sweet Darusya won the Book of the Year award in Ukraine in 2004 and the prestigious Shevchenko Prize in 2005. Sweet Darusya is also enjoying enormous popularity in a staged version that toured abroad in the fall of 2010 in Canada.
MARGALIT MATITIAHU writes poetry in Hebrew and Ladino. She has published research articles on the Ladino press in Thessaloniki, Greece between 1860-1940, and has been a regular participant for twenty-five years on Israel's Radio Ladino program. Since 1986, she has lectured at Bar-Ilan University. She is the winner of the Fernando Jeno Award (1994), the international prize for Jewish literature given by the Jewish community of Mexico; of the Ateneo de Jaen Award (1996), the international literature prize for poetry in Jaen, Andalusia, Spain; and of the Priminster Literature Award (1999), Israel. Since 1986 she has served as secretary-general of the Writers' Union in Israel and she has participated in the International Congress of Poets all over the world since 1991. She has published numerous collections of poetry in both Hebrew and Ladino, in Spain and Israel.
CHIARA MATRAINI (1515-1604?) spent most of her life in Lucca, where she was born and died. Her earliest book of poetry deals with earthly love; her last, with love of God. Separating them are four decades of activity, including a sojourn in Genova and the composition of several treatises on religious subjects.
MILTIADES MATTHIAS was born in Old Phaliron, near Athens, Greece. He is a concert pianist who has devoted a great part of his career to the dissemination of music by Greek composers, as well as being a composer himself. His translations of poetry by Nobel Laureate Greek poet George Seferis, in which the rhyme and rhythm have been preserved, appeared in the Fall 2008 and Fall 2009 issues of Metamorphoses. He is a participant in the Speakers in the Humanities program for the New York State Council for the Humanities and, in this capacity, delivers lecture-recitals on Mozart, Beethoven and Liszt across New York State.
SUSAN MATTHIAS's translation of Nobel Laureate Greek poet George Seferis's only completed novel, Six Nights on the Acropolis, was published in 2007 as part of the Modern Greek Literature Library (Cosmos Publishing). In 2006, she received her PhD in Comparative Literature from New York University, where she currently teaches. In 2009, her translation of Seferis's essay, "Introduction to T.S. Eliot," the poet's preface to his 1936 translation of The Waste Land, appeared in the journal Modernism/Modernity (Volume 16, Number 1). Other translations of works by modern Greek authors have appeared in publications including the Harvard Review, Dialogos, the Journal of Modern Greek Studies, and Conjunctions.
VLADIMIR MAYAKOVSKY (1893-1930) Leading poet of the Russian Revolution in the early Soviet period. At the age of fifteen he joined the Russian Democratic Workers' Party and was repeatedly jailed for subversive activity. He began to write poetry in 1909 while in solitary confinement. He later attended the Moscow Art School, joined the Russian Futurist movement and became one of its leading spokesmen. 1912 saw the publication of a manifesto, A Slap in the Face of Public Taste. By 1913 he was writing poetic dramas and major poems, using colloquial language and introducing technical innovations. He developed a declamatory, didactic style suitable for public recitation, and was extremely popular, particularly after the Revolution. In 1924 he wrote a 3000 line elegy on the death of Lenin, but in the last years of his life he openly criticized the government, and Stalin, in satirical plays and other works. He committed suicide in 1930.
ALAMIN MAZRUI, a Kenyan, is Associate Professor of African and African-American Studies at Ohio State University. He is the author of a collection of poems, Kilio cha Haki, 1988 (A Cry for Justice). Mazrui holds an M.Ed in Language Education from Rutgers University and a Ph.D. in Linguistics from Stanford University in California. He has taught at universities in Kenya, Nigeria and the USA and has served as a consultant to non-governmental organizations in African on such subjects as language and urbanization and language and the law. He has a special interest in human rights and civil liberties and has written policy reports on those subject. He has published plays, poetry and several scholarly works in Kiswahili including Uchambuzi wa Fasihi (Heinemann, Kenya, 1992), co-authored with Benedict Syambo; The Swahili Idiom and Identity (Africa World Press, 1994), with Ibrahim Noor Shariff; Political Culture of Language: Swahili, Society and the State (IGCS, Binghamton University, 1996; Second Edition, 1999), with Ali A. Mazrui; and Power of Babel: Language and Governance in the African Experience (University of Chicago Press, 1998), also co-authored with Ali A. Mazrui.
MWENDA MBATIAH holds a Ph.D. from the University of Nairobi where he is a Lecturer in the Department of Kiswahili.
JOSEPH L. MBELE, a Tanzanian, is Associate Professor of English and Folklore at St. Olaf College. He formerly taught in the Literature Department at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. His research centers on folklore, especially the epic and folktale. He has published papers in such journals as Africana Journal, Kiswahili, Research in African Literatures, African Languages and Culture, and The Literary Griot as well as a book, Matengo Folktales.
J. DERRICK McCLURE, MBE, has taught for over thirty years in the English Department at Aberdeen University, specializing in Scottish literature and the history of the Scots language. His publications include monographs on the North-East dialect of Scots and the language of modern Scots poetry, as well as numerous articles and conference papers on Scottish linguistic and literary topics; and he is editor of the annual journal Scottish Language and Chairman of the Forum for Research in the Languages of Scotland and Ulster. His published translations are principally from modern Gaelic poetry, but he has also translated work by Cecco Angiolieri and Frederic Mistral.
ISIS McELROY is an Assistant Professor at Arizona State University. She received her doctorate in Comparative Literature at New York University, where she also received a master's degree in English Literature. She works on interdisciplinary approaches to Brazilian literature and culture (North American & Hispanic/Anglophone Caribbean), Afro-Brazilian literature and culture, Afro-Diasporic sacred and secular manifestations in its various expressions, politics of identity, and gender and race in the literatures of the Americas.
LYNETTE F. MCGRATH holds a doctorate in English from the University of Illinois; she teaches English and Women's Studies at West Chester University. Her publications have been chiefly on women's literature of the Renaissance; she and Nathaniel Smith have jointly published translations of several Catalan poets.
MARTIN MCKINSEY's forthcoming translations include Petrified Time by Yannis Ritsos (Thistlewood; with Scott King) and Clearing the Ground: C.P Cavafy in Poetry and Prose, 1902-1911 (Laertes; translations and essay). McKinsey's recent translations include The Wavering Scales by Yannis Ritsos (with Scott King) from Red Dragonfly (2006), and Cafes and Comets after Midnight: Poems of Nikos Engonopoulos from Green Integer (2008). He is the author of Hellenism and the Postcolonial Imagination: Yeats, Cavafy, Walcott (Fairleigh Dickinson, 2010).
JULIE MCLUCAS was born in Motherwell, Scotland, in 1956. She holds an MA degree in French and Hispanic Studies from Glasgow University and a degree in Anglo-Germanic Philology from the University of Valencia. At present, she teaches English in the Institut de Batzillerat (high school) of Calp, Alicante.
MALCOLM MCNEE is Associate Professor of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies at Smith College, where he also serves on program boards for Comparative Literature, Latin American Studies, and Translation Studies. He holds an MA in Latin American Studies from Tulane and a PhD in Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Literatures and Linguistics from the University of Minnesota. He is an author of The Environmental Imaginary in Brazilian Poetry and Art (2014), an exocritical examination of works by contemporary poets and visual artists, and co-editor of Gilberto Freyre e os estudos latino-americanos(2006), reconsidering the legacies of Brazil's most prolific and controversial 20th-century public intellectual. His current projects include the translation of Moacyr Scliar's late novella, Eden-Brasil, and selections from poet and translator Josely Vianna Baptista's Roca barroca, including her translations of Mbya-Guarani cosmogonic songs and her own poetic responses.
RHETT WARREN MCNEIL graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with degrees in English, Portuguese, and Art History and from Penn State University with an MA in Comparative Literature. As a graduate student he studied Machado de Assis in the National Library in Rio de Janeiro and the Brazilian Academy of Letters, organized a colloquium on literary translation with a keynote address by John O'Brien of the Dalkey Archive Press, and convened a centenary celebration of the 100th anniversary of Machado's death. He is currently ABD in Comparative Literature at Penn State.
DAN MCNERNEY teaches Latin at an elementary school in New York City. He obtained an MA in Classical Languages and Civilization from Fordham University in 2009.
KATHLEEN MCNERNEY is an eclectic scholar whose works include books on the fifteenth-century poet Ausias March and the novelist Joanot Martorell as well as works on contemporary Catalan women writers. She has also written about Spanish, French, and Latin-American authors, both classic and contemporary. She teaches literature, humanities, and women's studies at West Virginia University. In 1990, she was awarded the Catalonia Prize for diffusion of Catalan culture, and in 1995 she was designated Benedum Distinguished Scholar by her institution.
MIREN AGUR MEABE, born in Lekeitio in 1962, she now lives in Bilbao. She has a degree in Basque philology. She was a teacher for a few years and now publishes Basque text books. She writes poetry and children's literature, and has to her credit many award winning books for children and young people including The House By the Cliff (2000, Eusakdi Prize). She has published two collections of poetry, Oi, hondarrezko emakaitz (1999) and Azalaren Kodea (2000), which received the Spanish Critics' Prize on the year of its publication, and was translated into Spanish by the author and published under the title El código de la piel (2002). www.miren-agur-meabe.com.
ARVIND KRISHNA MEHROTRA is the author of four books of poems, the most recent of which is The Transfiguring Places (1998), and one of translation, The Absent Traveller: Prâkrit Love Poetry from the Gâthâsaptaúatî of Sâtavâhana Hâla (1991), recently reissued in Penguin Classics. His edited books include The Oxford India Anthology of Twelve Modern Indian Poets (1992), A History of Indian Literature in English (2003), which was Choice magazine's outstanding academic title of the year, and The Last Bungalow: Writings on Allahabad (2007). He lives in Allahabad and Dehra Dun.
XOSÉ LUÍS MÉNDEZ FERRÍN (Vilanova dos Infantes, 1938) is the founder of the political party Unión do Pobo Galego [Union of the Galician People] and Galicia Ceibe [Free Galicia] and presided the Real Academia Galega until his resignation in March, 2013. He possesses an unrivalled mastery of the Galician language and is considered by his peers as the most `important living poet in Galicia. A group of Galician writers have presented his candidature for the Nobel Prize of Literature.
IÑAKI MENDIGUREN has a degree in History. Among many other works he has translated the Harry Potter books into Basque (one of which earned him the 2002 Euskadi Award for the Best Literary Translation). He has also had two novels published. With his wife, Sarah Turtle, he is responsible for translating news items from Basque into English for the English Edition of the on-line Basque-language newspaper BERRIA.
GIAMBATTISTA MENEI teaches at the University of Pescara in Italy.
EMMANUEL MERLE is the author of several collections of poetry, two with Gallimard, and a collection of short stories, also with Gallimard. He is the recipient of many honors and prizes in France, including the Prix Théophile Gautier from the Académie Française and the Prix Rhône Alpes du Livre. His recent books of poetry are Pierres de folie (La Passe du vent, 2010), Ici en exil (L'Escampette Editions, 2012) and Le chien de Goya (Editions Encre et lumière, 2014). He lives in Grenoble, where he teaches French and Latin.
LUCAS MERTEHIKIAN Lucas Mertehikian was born in Buenos Aires in 1986. He studied literature at the University of Buenos Aires. He is a contribuor to the "Books and Literature" section of Ñ and works as an editor for a number of Argentine presses.
W.S. MERWIN Has now settled on the island of Maui in Hawaii, where he divides his time between writing and cultivating his garden of tropical plants. A long-time translator, he is one of America's most celebrated poets, having won the most prestigious of America's prizes. He was recently a Chancellor of the American Academy of Poets.
PROSPER MÉRIMÉE (1803-1870) French writer, Senator, and Member of both l'Académie des Inscriptions and l'Académie Française. His mastery of English, Greek, Spanish and later, especially, Russian, sparked in him a passion for modern and ancient literatures as well as a consuming interest in the history of art, about which he would write extensively. His later years were spent translating the works of Pushkin, Gogol, and Turgenev.
GEORGE MESSO is a poet, translator, and editor. His books include From the Pine Observatory (2000), Aradaki Ses (The In-between Voice, 2005), Entrances (2006) and Avrupa'nm Kucuk Tanrilari (The Little Gods of Europe, 2007). His translation of Ilhan Berk's selected poems, A Leaf About to Fall, was published by Salt in 2006. His translations of I'll be at the Birds' Birthday and The Book of Things by Ilhan Berk are due in 2008 from Shearman Books and Salt Publishing respectively. He is the editor of Near East Review.
PETER MEYER (1935- ) has a PhD in nuclear physics from Bonn University. Inspired by the work of Ralph Nader, he became an environmental activist in the 1970s. In 1991 he was elected to the Berlin Parliament, where he became head of the environmental faction of the Social Democratic party, chair of the "Sustainable Berlin" Commission, and chief editor of the white paper Sustainable Berlin (Zukunftsfähiges Berlin, in German). In 1999, Peter retired from party politics. In 2003, with the help of his American cousin, Vincent Brook, he translated his short story Gleichviel (All the Same) into English.
IB MICHAEL, born in 1945, is celebrated as a modern Danish fairytale writer or magic realist. His fiction encompasses rich imagery, exotic or historical settings, surprising plot twists, and frequent suspension of Western rationalistic concepts. His latest publication(2013) is Himlen brændte, an adventure novel set in Russia against the backdrop of the mysterious Tunguska event of 1908 and the Russian revolution.
HENRI MICHAUX (d. 1984 at the age of 85) One of the great visionary figures of the century. His work ranges from poetry to narrative essays, drawings and paintings that have earned him comparisons to Kafka, Paul Klee, Goya and others, though he stands preeminently alone as a writer.
ALLA MIKHALEVICH is a Doctor of Biological Sciences and author of numerous scientific publications. She has published five collections of poems and translated the poems of several American, English and Irish poets (including two scientist-poets, Roald Hoffmann and J-P Connerad). She has been a member of the Russian Union of Writers and the St Petersburg Union of Writers since 1992. Among other poetry prizes, she has received the Zabolotsky Prize of the Nevsky Prospect Festival in 2007.
CHRISTOFOROS MILIONIS (1932 - ) was born in Ioannina, Greece. A classical philologist and literary critic as well as a prolific writer of fiction, he has taught in Greece and Cyprus and served on the editorial boards of several pioneering literary journals. In 1986 he won the First National Short Fiction Prize for his collection of short stories, Kalamas and Acheron. In 2000 he received the Diavazo Magazine prize for fiction for his collection The Ghosts of York. In addition to numerous volumes of critical essays and many critical editions, he has published two novels, a collection of novellas, and ten collections of short stories. His work has been translated into Hungarian, Russian, Swedish, Italian, French, Spanish, German, Dutch, and English.
STILIANA MILKOVA is Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature at Oberlin College where she teaches a translation workshop in addition to courses on literature and the visual arts. As a scholar, she works on Russian, Italian, English, and Bulgarian literatures. She translates from Italian and Bulgarian.
ELIZABETH GAMBLE MILLER Associate Professor of Spanish at SMU in Texas. Has published translations of poetry and fiction in numerous journals and an anthology of Latin American authors. An honorary member of the Academia Salvadorena de la Lengua, the Academia Iberoamericana de Poesia and Prometeo de Madrid, she is on the board of editors of Translation Review and edits ALTA's newsletter.
LARISA EMILYANOVNA MILLER was born in 1940 and has written over twenty books of poetry and prose, only two of which are accessible to readers of English. In 1999, Miller was a runner-up for the State Prize of the Russian Federation, and she was awarded the Arseny and Andrei Tarkovsky Prize in 2013.
STEPHEN MILLER is Assistant Professor of Japanese language and literature at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is translator of A Pilgrim's Guide to Forty-Six Temples (Weatherhill Inc., 1990), and editor of Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature (Gay Sunshine Press, 1996). He lived in Japan for nine years between 1980 and 1999, in part as the recipient of two Japan Foundation fellowships for research abroad. He is currently working on a study of the Buddhist poetry in the Japanese imperial poetry anthologies.
KRYSTYNA MILOBEDZKA (1932- ) made her poetic debut in 1960 with her collection Anaglify (Anaglyphs), from which these poems are taken. In addition to her distinctive and original poetic work, she has also written plays and theaer criticism.
LENCE MILOSEVSKA, a poet and writer of short stories, has a degree in English from Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Macedonia, and lived and worked in Great Britain for two years. She currently works as an editor at Kultura Publishing House in Skopje and regularly translates from English, Serbian, and Croatian into Macedonian. Her translation of Ernest Hemingway's Nick Adams Stories won a national award, as did her rendering of Erich Fromm's The Art of Loving (both from English to Macedonian).
BLAZE MINEVSKI (b. 1961 in Gevgelija) is a reporter for the Macedonian daily Nova Makedonija, having studied journalism in Skopje. He has published three novels and several volumes of short stories, selections of which have been translated into other languages, including English. His most recent novel bears the revealing title We Should Have Taken a Picture Before We Started Hating Each Other (1998).
ANA MINGA is a journalist. She was born in 1983 in Loja, southern Ecuador. She won first prize from the Central University of Ecuador for her early collection Pandemonium. Her two books since then are Behind God’s Back and Orphaned Birds. Translations by Alexis Levitin of Ana Minga’s poetry appear in Bitter Oleander, Asheville Poetry Review, Hampden-Sydney Poetry Review, Confrontation, Lake Effect, and Per Contra. A bilingual collection of her work, translated by Alexis Levitin, Tobacco Dogs and Other Poems, was published in winter 2013 by Bitter Oleander Press.
GASTON MIRON (1928-1996) was born in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts in the Laurentians, north of Montreal. Some consider him the "national poet" of French-speaking Quebec. A passionate defender of Quebecois language and literature, and a fierce separatist, he composed a body of poetry at once intimate and combative, and applied the unique structures and sounds of Quebecois syntax and vocabulary to create a poetic language that became his signature. He is best known for his anthology, L'homme rapaillé (1970). Among his literary prizes are the Prix Apollinaire (France) and the prix du Québec, Athanase David.
VERNE MOBERG is a lecturer in Scandinavian languages in the Swedish program at Columbia University. She has worked as a translator and editor in book publishing in New York and Stockholm, and has taught and written about women's literature.
JUDITH MOFFETT is the author of nine books in five genres including poetry and Swedish translation. She was awarded the Swedish Academy's Translation Prize in 1983. Her translations in this issue will appear in her tenth book, an anthology to be called The North! To the North! Five Poets of Nineteenth Century Sweden, forthcoming from Southern Illinois University Press.
MOLIÈRE (Jean Baptiste Poquelin, 1622-1673) Son of an upholsterer to the court of Louix XIV, he left the court to become manager of an actors' company for which he wrote his numerous plays. These deal largely with the follies and vices of French society of the day.
VLASTA MOMAN-KOVÁCOVÁ holds an MA degree in French and English languages and literature from Matej Bel University (Slovakia) and a Master's degree in European plurilingualism from the University of Strasbourg (France). She has worked as a translator in the European Union institutions since 2008, currently at the CdT (Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union). Her translation include the poetry book Planh by Anne-Marie Cazalis that she translated from French into English and Spanish.
MARÍA MONASTERIOS (Caracas, Venezuela, 1963-) is the author of three poetry collections: Ritual de abalorios (1999), Rastros (1999) and Volver a ser aire (2001).
AMÀLIA RODRÍGUEZ MONROY is Associate Professor of English and Translation Studies at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona. She has written extensively on American poetry, translation theory, and literary theory, notably Bakhtin and Lacan. Among her works are "An Other Word: Language and the Ethics of Social Interaction in Bakhtin, Freud and Lacan"; "Bajtin y Lacan: la cuestión del inconsciente"; "De la traducción como mestizaji: hacia una descolonización del texto cultural"; and, more recently, "Bajtin y el deseo del Otro: lenguaje, cultura y el espacio de la ética." She has translated Robert Lowell's For the Union Dead and Other Poems into Spanish (1990) and her book-length study on Lowell's autobiographical mode is in press. She directs a series on cultural studies for Anthropos and the University of Puerto Rico Press.
EUGENIO MONTALE (1896-1981) Poet, prose writer, editor and translator, he is considered by many to be the greatest Italian lyric poet of the 20th century. In 1975 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
PEDRO MEIRA MONTEIRO is a Full Professor at Princeton University. He teaches courses on Brazilian literature; Latin American essays, music and poetry; and cultural and intellectual history. His books include A queda do aventureiro (1999), Um moralista nos tropicos (2004), Mario de Andrade e Sergio Buarque de Holanda: Correspondencia (2012), Cangoma Calling: Spirits and Rhythms of Freedom in Brazilian Jongo Slavery Songs (2012), and O futuro abolido: Machado de Assis e o Memorial de Aires (2013). With Joao Biehl, Lilia Schwarcz, and Antonio Sergio Guimaraes, he co-directs Princeton's Global Network on "Race and Citizenship in the Americas." He is the editor of the Journal of Lusophone Studies of the American Portuguese Studies Association.
SARAH MOON graduated from Smith College in 2004 with majors in Comparative Literature and Spanish. She hopes to attend graduate school for an MFA in poetry and a MA in Translation Studies in Fall 2005.
MOON TAE-JUN (1970- ) has published four collections of poetry: Chattering Backyard (2000), Bare Foot (2004), Flatfish (2006), and Shadow’s Development (2008) as well as other essays and commentary. One of the most popular and award-winning Korean poets of the younger generation, Moon uses deceptively simple poetic language with profound lyricism, commenting on the struggle of daily life. Grounded in Buddhist philosophy, his poems speak with reverence for all forms of life and emphasize the necessity of emptying oneself.
ANDREA MOORHEAD was born in 1947 in Buffalo, New York. Editor of Osiris and co-director of the Deerfield Academy Press, Moorhead publishes poetry and prose in both English and French. Her most recent collections of poems are From A Grove Of Aspen (1997, University of Salzburg) and le vert est fragile (1999, Écrits des Forges).Her translations include The Edges of Light, selected poems of Hélène Dorion (1995, Guernica Editions) and Updates, poems by Françoise Hàn (1999, Éditions en Forêt/Verlag Im Wald). She is preparing a translation of Madeleine Gagnon's Rêve de pierre.
NANCY J. MORALES, a first-generation Puerto Rican American, earned her B.A. from Rutgers College, an M.A. in teaching English as a Second Language from Adelphi University, and a Ph.D. in education from Teachers College at Columbia University. She has taught Spanish language, literature and education at Dominican University and College of Marin. Currently, she is on the faculties of Sonoma Academy and California State University, Sonoma, and serves on the board of the Northern California Chapter of the Fulbright Alumni Association. She lives in Sonoma County with her son.
MYRIAM MORAZ, poet and translator, studied at the University of Lausanne, where she now teaches French as a Foreign Language. Her translation of the Swiss poet Pierre-Alaim Tâche appears in Silk Road. With Tim Keane, she is working on an anthology of translations of contemporary Swiss Romande poets.
MARK MORFORD was Chairman of the Department of Classics at Ohio State University and is Professor Emeritus of Classics at the University of Virginia. He was a scholar of Winchester College in England and of Trinity College, Oxford. He was Kennedy Professor of Renaissance Studies at Smith College, where he is currently Salloch Fellow in the Mortimer Rare Book Room. He is the author of Stoics and Neostoics: Rubens and the Circle of Lipsius, and of books on Lucan, on Persius, and on Classical Mythology. His book The Roman Philosophers was published by Routledge in 2002.
JASON MORGAN completed the PhD in Japanese history at the University of Wisconsin. He is currently working on several Japanese history and current-events translation projects, and is a researcher at the Japan Forum for Strategic Studies in Tokyo.
CHRISTIAN MORGENSTERN (1871-1914) German poet philosopher, translator of Ibsen and Strindberg. Influenced by them, as by Nietzsche and later by Rudolph Steiner. Known particularly for his absurdist poems, despite his more serious, visionary work. Claimed by the Dadaists as one of their own.
YUNNA MORITS (born in Kiev, 1937) one of Russian's leading contemporary poets. Although she achieved prominence during the Thaw, in the Soviet era her poems were published much more rarely than her readers wished. A book of her selected poems, V Logove Golose, was published in Moscow in 1990 to great acclaim. She lives in Moscow.
JOEL MORRIS holds a PhD in Comparative Literary Studies from Northwestern University, where he teaches. His articles have appeared in The German Quarterly, The Journal of Modern Literature, and the collection Walter Benjamin and the Architecture of Modernity.
CINTIA MOSCOVICH's first book of short stories, Reino de Cebolas, was recommended for the Jabuti Prize in 1996. She has also published the novels Duas iguais (1998) and Por que estou gorda, mamae (2006), the short story collections Anotacoes durante o incendio and Arquitectura do arco-iris, and has contributed to more than a dozen anthologies in Brazil and other countries.
GHADA MOURAD is a PhD candidate in Comparative Literature at the University of California, Irvine, and a Schaeffer fellow in literary translation in the International Center of Writing and Translation at UC Irvine as well. She translates from Arabic and French into English. Her translations appeared in Jadaliyya, A Gathering of the Tribes, ArteEast, Transference, and the anthology Now that We Have Tasted Hope: Voices from the Arab Spring.
SANDRA MOUSSEMPÈS, born in Paris in 1965, has published two volumes of poetry, Exercices d'incendie (Éditions Fourbis 1994) and Vestiges de fillette (Flammarion 1997). Her poems and short stories have been published in many collected works and journals. Future publications include two short stories in NRF and translations from Vestiges de fillette by Serge Gavronsky in Sites, the Journal of 20th Century French Studies (in print 2000). In 1995, she received a prestigious residency grant at the Villa Médicis, Académie de France in Rome, and has since received many other grants, including the Mission Stendhal in London (1994; 1997), Semaines littéraires de Genshagen in Berlin (1999) and a residency at the Villa Kujoyama in Japan (2000).
ABDULZAHRA MUHAMAD was born in Najaf, Iraq in 1961. He graduated from Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad in 1984. In 1993 he obtained a Higher Diploma in Translation from the same University and in 2004 won a Fulbright scholarship to pursue non-degree graduate studies in the field of translation at the University of Massachussetts Amherst. He has taught translation and other classes in the Department of English at Kufa University in Najaf, Iraq since 1994.
FATIMA MUJCINOVIC is Professor of English at Westminster College in Salt Lake City. She holds a PhD in comparative literature from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her literary translations from Bosnian, Spanish, and English have been published in the United States and Europe.
PAUL MULDOON's most recent volume is Moy Sand and Gravel (2002), for which he won the 2003 Pulitzer Prize. Born in 1951 in County Armagh, Muldoon now teaches at Princeton University and in 1999 was elected Professor of Poetry at the University of Oxford. Paul Muldoon's main collections of poetry are New Weather (1973), Mules (1977), Why Brownlee Left (1980), Quoof (1983), Meeting The British (1987), Madoc: A Mystery (1990), The Annals of Chile (1994), Hay (1998), and Poems 1968-1998 (2001).
KATWIWA MULE is Associate Professor of Comparative Literature and Chair of the Comparative Literature Program at Smith College. He also serves as the Director of African Studies and is the author of Women's Spaces, Women's Visions: Politics, Poetics and Resistance in African Women's Drama (Africa World Press, 2007).
WILLIAM MULLEN Professor at Bard College. His recent publications include Jefferson and Rome: Foundation and Fabric and The Agenda of the Milesian School. His poem "Enchanted Rock" was selected by John Hollander to appear in Best American Poems of 1998. The American Biographical Institute has chosen him this year for inclusion in Five Hundred Leaders of Influence, and the International Biographical Institute in Cambridge, England, has included him in The First Five Hundred.
DANIEL MURPHY teaches in the Department of Modern Languages at Hollins University where he offers classes on Hispanic literature, and on Spanish language and culture. His special scholarly interest is in poetry and he is the author of Vicente Aleixandre's Stream of Lyric Consciousness (Bucknell University Press, 2001).
VAHO MUSKHELI and his wife Veronica Muskheli, are a husband-and-wife team of Georgian language translators. Born and raised in the Republic of Georgia, Vaho has an MFA in painting from the State Academy of Arts in Tbilisi. As a student there during Georgia's reluctant membership in the Soviet Union, he participated in protests against measures to replace his native Georgian as the state language with Russian. Today, Vaho is a professional artist sharing his time between Tbilisi and Seattle, WA. Salamura's Adventures is the first major work of translation by the Muskhelis.
VERONICA MUSKHELI and her husband Vaho Mushkeli are a team of Georgian language translators. Born in Russia and educated in the USA, Veronica has an MS from the University of Texas and is a research scientist at the University of Washington in Seattle. There she has been taking creative writing, comparative literature, and foreign language courses, including translation theory classes taught by a prominent translator of Slavic languages, Michael Biggins. Salamura's Adventures is the first major work of translation by the Muskhelis.