Biographies of Contributors



INGEBORG BACHMANN (1926-1973). Born the daughter of a schoolmaster in Klagenfurt, Austria, she was a renowned post-war lyric poet who viewed the post-war period as a continuation of fascism by other means. She held a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Vienna, worked in radio, and wrote opera libretti. She had relationships with Paul Celan and Max Frisch. For the last 20 years of her life, she lived in Rome, where she died in a fire caused by a lit cigarette in her apartment. After her death, she became a feminist icon for her fiction, much of which deals with the power dynamics in relationships.

MICHELLE BAILAT-JONES is a translator and writer, based in Switzerland. She is currently completing a translation of the novel La Beauté Sur la Terre (Beauty on Earth) by C. F. Ramuz. Her work has appeared or is forthcoming in The Quarterly Conversation, The Kenyon Review, Necessary Fiction and Bordercrossing Berlin.


LINDA FRAZEE BAKER (1946-) holds an M.A. in fiction from the Johns Hopkins University and a Ph.D. in English literature from the University of California at Berkeley. She has taught literary translation at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität in Münster, and her translation of Bachmann was selected for inclusion at the New York University 2012 Literary Arts Festival.

SALWA BAKR was born in Cairo in 1949. She earned her B.A. in Business Management from Ain Shams University in 1972 and a second B.A. in Theatre Criticism in 1976. From 1974 to 1980, she worked as a government rationing inspector. She then worked as a film and theatre critic for several Arabic language publications. Since 1985, she has concentrated on creative writ- ing. She has published seven collections of short stories, seven novels and a play. Her works have been translated into several languages. Since 2001 she has worked as a visiting professor in the American University in Cairo. She is a member of Egyptian High Council for Culture, The Egyptian Writers Union, a ju- ror in the first Arab Cinema Festival (Paris), and in the IBN RUSHD Competition for Freedom of Thought.

DIANA BALDINI BROWN has studied in her native Argentina, France, Spain and the US. Professor and Chair of Languages and International Studies at Dana College and Midland University (Nebraska), she also teaches French and Spanish at the University of Nebraska. Her translations (from French, Spanish, and Ladino) have been published in Argentina, Israel and the US.

RAFFAELLO BALDINI (1924-2005) was born in 1924 in Santarcangelo di Romagna, and lived in Milan from 1955 until his death on March 29, 2005. His collections of poetry, all written in the Romagnolo dialect, include: E' solitèri (Galeati, 1976), La nàiva, with an introduction by Dante Isella (Einaudi, 1982); Furistír, with an introduction by Brevini (Einaudi, 1988), Ad Nòta, with an introduction by Pier Vincenzo Mengaldo (Mondadori, 1995); La nàiva, Furistír, Ciacri (Einaudi, 2000). His collection, Intercity (Einaudi, 2003), won the Dino Campana Award. His collection Furistír was awarded the 1988 Viareggio Prize, the first time the prize was awarded to a work written in dialect. His collection, Ad Nòta, was awarded the Bagutta Prize. Baldini wrote three theatrical monologues: Carta cantra, Zitti tutti! and In fondra a destra (Einaudi, 1998).

DAVID BALL has won two major prizes for his translations from the French in both poetry and prose. His version of Alfred Jarry’s Ubu is included in the Norton World Drama anthology. A past president of the American Literary Translators Association, his most recent books include Marseille Noir and Laurent Mauvignier’s magnificent novel The Wound, both co-translated with Nicole Ball.

NICOLE BALL, a native of France, has published a dozen book-length translations of contemporary Francophone authors, mostly with David Ball; among them: Lola Lafon (We Are the Birds of the Coming Storm, Seagull Books, 2014), Laurent Mauvignier (The Wound, University of Nebraska Press, 2015) a collection of noir stories for Akashic (Marseille Noir, 2015), and most recently Michèle Lesbre (The Red Sofa, Seagull Books, 2017). They are now working together again on The Divine Song (Seagull), their fourth novel by the French-Djiboutian author, Abdourahman A. Waberi. Her translations from English to French include two thrillers: Jonathan Kellerman’s Survival of the Fittest and, most recently, William Casey Moreton’s The Stranger Beside You (Cet inconnu à tes côtés, AmazonCrossing, France, 2016).

SERAJADDIN BANAGAR is an Iranian Kurdish poet, critic, and writer. In 1993, he published a collection of his poetry, The Narrow Road of Silence, in Farsi. For years, he has chaired several literary seminars and conferences. In 2007, he published a short story collection, Hide and Seek, in Kurdish. He has directed a short story writing workshop for fourteen years in Sanandaj, Iran.

MARIA NEMCOVA BANERJEE is Professor of Russian and Comparative Literature at Smith College. Her publications include two books of literary criticism: Terminal Paradox: The Novels of Milan Kundera (1990, Grove Weidenfeld; 1991, Faber & Faber; 1992, paperback edition with additional chapter, Grove Weidenfeld; a French translation, Paradoxes terminaux: Les romans de Milan Kundera was published in 1993 by Gallimard, Paris); Dostoevsky: The Scandal of Reason (2006, Lindisfarne Books). As a translator of poetry from Russian and Czech into English she works in close collaboration with her husband, Ron Banerjee, who is a poet. In an essay published in the journal Modern Age (Vol. 48, No 2, Spring 2006) under the title “Viacheslav Ivanov and the Culture of Memory” she comments on the form and the theme of “The Roman Sonnets.”

RON BANERJEE, born in India, poet, translator, critic, is a contributing editor of Metamorphoses. Other than essays on various literatures and translations from a wide range of languages, his books are: Far From You (from Pavel Javor’s Czech poetry), Toronto, 1980; Poetry From Bengal, UNESCO, Forest Books, London 1989; L’Antica Fiamma (in Italian), Collana Pegaso, Pisa 1995; Sonnets For The Madonna, Fiesole, 1999; Natural Theater (tr. from Gian Piero Neri’s poetry), New York, 2003; The Milan Pieta (poems), Torino, 2006. His translations from Alessandro Carrera’s Lode all’ Isterica and from Jayadeva’s (Sanskrit), as well as of selected poems from Vaishnava Padavali (poetry and songs of Medieval India—from Bengali, Maithili, Sanskrit, Hindi) are on the way to the press.

SURANJANA BANERJEE is currently pursuing a doctorate in Translation Studies at the University of Calcutta. Her dissertation includes translations of short stories by Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay, on different aspects of life in colonial Bengal. She has translated short stories of Dalit authors like Manoranjan Byapari and Jatin Bala and enjoyed working on the latter’s book on a theoretical approach to Dalit literature. At present she is translating the autobiography of Jatin Bala.

BERTRADE B. NGO-NGIJOL BANOUM, a Camerounian, holds a Ph.D. from the University of Essex, England and is Assistant Professor of Black Studies at Lehman College. She has served as a consultant with UNICEF, UNDP, and international NGOs, including Family Care International (FCI), RAINBO, and African Action on AIDS, Inc. (AAA). Her recent publications include a translation from Basaa into English and French, "Fighting Hunger with Cassava: A Gift of 22 Recipes from the Rural Women of Bogso." She has two forthcoming articles, "Basaa Gender in Typological Perspective" and "Gender Identities and Women's Images in Oral Epic Tradition: A Feminist Reading of Bon ba Hiton." She is presently working on a manuscript titled The Epic of Bon ba Hiton: A Hilun Tradition of the Basaa of Southern Cameroon.

MARIE-CLAIRE BANCQUART Marie-Claire Bancquart (b. 1932) is a prolific and prize-winning French poet, novelist, essayist, critic and professor emerita of French literature at the Sorbonne. Her most recent collection of poetry, Explorer l'incertain, was published by Amourier in 2010. She lives in Paris.

ANNA BANTI (1895-1980), born Lucia Lopresti, began her career writing academic art history essays but later chose fiction as her unique voice. She and her husband, Roberto Longhi, founded Paragone, a monthly review of figurative art and literature. Perhaps best known for her Artemisia (1947), Banti is also author of A Piercing Cry (1981), collections of short stories—including Le donne muoiono (1951) and Campi Elisi (1963)—and translations of Colette and Jane Austen. Banti refused categorization as a feminist, but her writing style and perspective are feminocentric.

HAMIDA BANU CHOPRA is an internationally renowned reciter of Urdu poetry. She teaches Urdu language and literature at the University of California, Berkeley. She received her MA in Philosophy from Rajasthan University and an advanced degree in Urdu from Aligarh University. Her co-translations of Urdu poetry have appeared in TWO LINES: World Writing in Translation and Circumference and are forthcoming in the online multimedia journal Born Magazine.

JOSELY VIANNA BAPTISTA (b. 1957, Curitiba, Paraná) studied Hispanic literatures and Guarani language and culture at the Federal University of Paraná. She is an award-winning translator of Spanish-language writers including Jorge Luís Borges, Augusto Roa Bastos, and José Lezama Lima, and she co-founded Cadernos da Ameríndia, a journal dedicated to the cultural and textual repertoire of South American Indians. Her books of poetry include Ar [Air] (1991), Corpografia [Corpography] (1992), On the Shining Screen of the Eyelids (2001), Sol sobre nuvens [Sun on Clouds] (2002), and Roça barroca [Baroque Garden] (2011).

STANISLAW BARANCZAK (1946- ) Poet, critic, and translator, he is one of the most prominent members of the "New Wave" or "Generation of '68" in Polish poetry, and was a founding member of KOR (Committee for Workers' Defense) in the 1970s. He has taught Polish literature at Harvard University since 1981.

DATO BARBAKADZE (1966- ) is a Georgian writer, essayish and translator. He studied philosophy, psychology and sociology and is currently pursuing a doctorate degree in comparative literature. A leading poet of his generation in Georgia, he founded a number of literary magazine to promote innovative works of Georgian literature. He has published over 40 books of poetry, essays and translations, and his work has been translated into English, German, French and Russian. He has been a member of the association of European writers and poets since 2007.

JENNIFER BARBER is the author of two poetry collections, Rigging the Wind and Given Away, both published by Kore Press. She teaches at Suffolk University in Boston and is founding and current editor of the literary journal Salamander. She translates from French and Spanish; translations are forthcoming in Upstreet and Modern Poetry in Translation.

VINCET BARLETTA is Associate Professor of Iberian and Latin American Cultures and Research Associate at Stanford's Europe Center in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. He is a full-time faculty fellow at the Stanford Humanities Center. He teaches late medieval and early modern Iberian literatures, and his research focuses on Renaissance Portugal, empire and language, pastoral literature, and anthropological approaches to literature.

IMRE BARNA (1951- ) was born in Budapest, where he earned a degree in Italian and German languages and literatures. Long-time Editor-in-Chief of Európa Publishing House and a former Director of the Hungarian Academy in Rome, he also teaches courses on literary translation at the University of Budapest. He has published translations into Hungarian from Italian, Geman, English, and French, and authored critical essays on literature and cinema. His translation of Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose, won the Wessely Book of the Year prize in 1989, and in 1993 his translation of Foucault's Pendulum was awarded the Forintos prize.

RANALD BARNICOT has a degree in Classics from Balliol College, Oxford and has worked as a teacher of EFL/ESOL in Spain, Portugal, Italy and the UK. He is now (very recently) retired. He has published shamefully little. There was one magazine called Priapus—very fitting for a future translator of Catullus! He doesn’t write original poems these days, but prefers to translate. In fact two of his translations are due to be published in Stand magazine in 2018. He is married and lives in Watford (just outside London). He would like to publish a book of his versions of Catullus.

TONY BARNSTONE, a prolific poet, author, essayist, and literary translator, is Professor of English at Whittier College. In addition to his eighteen published books, his work has appeared in dozens of American literary journals, from APR to Poetry. His books of poetry are Impure (1999); the chapbook Naked Magic (2002); Sad Jazz: Sonnets (2005);The Golem of Los Angeles (2007); Tongue of War: From Pearl Harbor to Nagasaki (2009); a bilingual selected poetry, Buda en Llamas/Buddha in Flames: Antología Poética (2014), translated by Mariano Zaro; Beast in the Apartment (2014); and the graphic poetry collection Pulp Sonnets (2015), based on 20 years of research into classic pulp fiction, Gothic literature, B movies and comic books, illustrated by Amin Mansouri. Barnstone has also translated many books from the Chinese and is the editor of several world literature textbooks and the anthologies Poems Dead and Undead (2014) and Monster Verse: Human and Inhuman Poems (2015). With singer-songwriters John Clinebell and Ariana Hall he put out a CD of original music based on his poetry, Tokyo Burning: World War II Songs, available on CD Baby, Spotify and Among his awards: NEA, NEH, California Arts Council, the Poets Prize, Grand Prize of the Strokestown International Poetry Festival, Pushcart Prize in Poetry, Benjamin Saltman Award in Poetry, Pablo Neruda Prize in Poetry, Silver Award of the Independent Publishers Book Awards, and the John Ciardi Prize in Poetry.

SARAH BARR is an instructor in the Department of English and Comparative Literature at The American University in Cairo, having earned an MA in German and an MFA in Literary Translation from the University of Arkansas. For her translations of Colonies of Love she has won two Lily Peter Fellowships, the Gary Wilson Award from the University of Arkansas Press, a Fulbright Translation Thesis Fellowship, an American Literary Translators Association Conference Fellowship, and a Walton Fellowship.

SANDRO BARROS is an associate professor of Modern Languages at Michigan State University. He earned his B.A. in Music and Spanish and his Ph.D in Romance Languages and Literatures. Barros has published articles on Reinaldo Arenas, Cervantes, Paulo Lins, and Fernando Vallejo. His current interests include critical/resistance pedagogies and the political implications of Latino literature in the U.S. curriculum. He is the author of Competing Truths in Contemporary Latin American Literature: Narrating Otherness, Marginality, and the Politics of Representation (Floricanto Press, 2010).

DON BARTELL received his BA in Spanish and French at Portland State University and his MA in Portuguese at the University of Wisconsin. He has been a Fulbright Scholar in Portugal, an instructor at the University of Illinois, and a visiting lecturer at Northwestern University. He has published translations of Jorge de Sena and for several years has been preparing translations of Estellés and Martí i Pol. He has co-authored, with Lluís Cugota, articles on genetic engineering and virtual reality in La Vanguardia. He is currently a case manager with Adult and Family Services for the State of Oregon. He wishes to express his gratitude to his friend Ivan Cunillera for reviewing the translations of Martí i Pol and for making many helpful suggestions.

EFRAÍN BARTOLOMÉ (Ocosingo, Chiapas, 1950). Su obra poética se ha reunido en los volúmenes AGUA LUSTRAL Poesía 1982-1987, Col. Lecturas Mexicanas, Conaculta, 1994, OFICIO: ARDER Obra poética 1982-1997, UNAM, 1999 y EL SER QUE SOMOS, Col. Antologías, Editorial Renacimiento, Sevilla, 2006. Premio Ciudad de México; Premio Nacional de Poesía Aguascalientes, Premio Carlos Pellicer para obra publicada, Premio Internacional de Poesía Jaime Sabines. El Gobierno de la República le otorgó el Premio Nacional al Mérito Forestal y de Vida Silvestre. En 1998 recibió el Premio Chiapas de Arte. En el 2001 recibió el International Latino Arts Award en los Estados Unidos. Pertenece al Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte. Hay traducción de poemas suyos al inglés, francés, portugués, italiano, alemán, árabe, gallego, náhuatl, maya peninsular y esperanto.

DOUGLAS BASFORD's translations appear in Poetry, Subtropics, Western Humanities Review, The FSG Book of Twentieth-Century Italian Poetry, Formes Poétiques Contemporaines, SubStance, Zymbol, The Atlanta Review, and elsewhere. He has received awards from the National Endowment for the Arts, National Endowment for the Humanities, New England Poetry Club, Dorothy Sargent Rosenberg Memorial Foundation, Santa Fe Art Institute, and other organizations. He teaches at the University at Buffalo and co-edits the online journal Unsplendid.

LARBI BATMA (1948-98) is best known for founding the influential Moroccan musical group Nass El Ghiwane. A well-rounded artist, he was also an actor, a playwright, and a poet. Upon being diagnosed with lung cancer, he decided to write his autobiography. Throughout his life, he avidly researched Moroccan folklore and brought considerable amounts of obscure poetry and music to mainstream awareness.

CHARLES BAUDELAIRE (1821-1867) has been called the first modern poet. His major work Les Fleursdu Mal is influenced by the French romantic poets of the early nineteenth century and is formally close to the contemporary Parnassians but is psychologically and sexually complex with an ironic, sometimes cynical voice. His work shocked the literary world of his time and he and his publisher and printer were successfully prosecuted, with six of the poems suppressed. He was also a discerning essayist and art critic and a pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.

For GEORGES BAUDOUX, see article within Spring 2003, issue 11.1.

MARIA POGLITSCH BAUER (1949 - ) was born in Carinthia, Austria and studied English and History in Vienna and Baltimore, MD. A free-lance writer and translator, she also teaches English as a Second Language at a Southern California community college.

SAMUEL BAUER, fiction writer and scholar of modern Spanish Peninsular Literature, has held numerous teaching positions in a range of colleges and universities in the US and abroad; he has been a Fellow at the Bobst Center for Peace and Justice at Princeton University, and in 2009-2010 a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures at Harvard University.

MICHAEL BEARD has frequently collaborated with Adnan Haydar in writings on Iranian and Lebanese literature. He teaches English literature at the University of North Dakota and is the author of several books in his own right.

ANNETTE BEAUCHAMP is the daughter of immigrants from Central America and the Caribbean. She lives in Massachusetts and is the former Regional Service Coordinator for the Massachusetts Migrant Education Program.

ADRIANA BEBIANO is Assistant Professor in the Department of Anglo-American Studies and a researcher in the Centro de Estudos Sociais, at the University of Coimbra, Portugal. Her work is mainly on contemporary Anglo-American fiction. Translating poetry happens from time to time—and it makes her happy.

JÜRGEN BECKER has been called a topographer of everyday life. The German writer was born in Cologne in 1932, but spent most of his childhood years in Erfurth. He returned to West Germany in 1950, and after giving up university studies, spent several years in broadcasting and at publishing houses. After he began to have his own works published, he obtained prestigious German grants and prizes for his poetry, short stories, and radio plays. He lives and works near Cologne.

E.M. BEEKMAN has published twenty-two books. They include a twelve volume series of Dutch colonial literature in English translation, as well as poetry, prose, and scholarly monographs. He has translated a wide variety of Dutch authors from the sixteenth century to the present and twice received the translation award from Columbia University.

IRINA BELAYA is a journalist and editor from St. Petersburg, Russia. She is also an author of several books of poetry and short prose and a song composer and singer. She has worked with some popular Russian bands and created many songs based on her own poetry and poems by Lokki Walle (the pen name of Elena Gorsheneva). She is currently a student at the Moscow Institute of World Literature.

GIOVANNA BELLESIA holds a degree from the Interpreter School in Milan and an PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, with a dissertation on the translation work of Montale, Pavese and Vittorini during Fascism. She is Professor of Italian Language and Literature at Smith College. Together with Victoria Poletto and Alessandra Di Maio she is preparing an anthology of short stories (in English translation) by women who have emigrated to Italy from developing countries.

CARLOS GERMÁN BELLI, Peruvian poet of Italian descent, was born in 1927 in Lima, Peru. He earned a doctorate in literature from the National University of San Marcos and published his first book of poems in 1958.

RUY BELO, who died prematurely in 1978, published eleven collections of poetry, four collections of critical writings, and numerous translations of writers such as Jorge Luis Borges, Blaise Cendrars, Garcia Lorca, and Saint-Exupery. His work has appeared in over thirty anthologies in Portugal, as well as in collections published in France, Spain, Italy, Serbia, Germany, Sweden, Latvia, Bulgaria, Holland, Mexico, and, of course, Brazil. Some recent translations of his work by Alexis Levitin have appeared in or are about to appear in Catamaran, International Poetry Review, Metamorphoses, Per Contra, and Saranac Review.

ELENA GIANINI BELOTTI was born in Rome. She is the award-winning author of numerous works, among them: Dalla parte della bambine (1973), Amore e pregiudizio (1988, Premio Donna Città di Roma), Adagio un poco mosso (1993), Pimpì oselì (1995), Apri le porte all'alba (1999), and Voli (2001, Premio Rapallo Carige), all published by Feltrinelli. With Rizzoli she has published Prima le donne e i bambini (1980 and 1998), Non di sola madre (1983), Il fiore dell'ibisco (1985, Premio Napoli), and Prima della quiete (2003, Premio Grinzane Cavour, Premio Viadana, Premio Maiori). Her most recent book is Pane amaro (Rizzoli, 2006). She divides her time between Rome and the Sienese countryside.

ZIVA BEN-PORAT is a professor of Poetics and Comparative Literature and the director of The Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics at Tel Aviv University. She has worked on intertextuality, allusion in particular, and on the relations between artistic presentations, cultural concepts and mental representations. She is currently involved in an IST EC project, CULTOS, that develops authoring tools and transformers for the construction and presentation of multi-media threads organized by linking explicitly tagged intertextual relations between artifacts or segments thereof.

DÉBORA BENACOT was born and lives in Mendoza, Argentina. Ácaros al sol (Fundíbulo Ediciones, 2011) won the 2011 Escenario award for best book of poetry published in Mendoza. Pirsin (Ediciones culturales de Mendoza, 2012) won the Vendemia poetry award in 2012. In 2014 she published Escrito en un grano de arroz (Fundíbulo Ediciones).

ELENA BENELLI holds a Laurea in Lingue e Letterature Straniere Moderne e Contemporanee from the University of Trieste and she is a PhD candidate in the Department of Comparative Literature at the University of Montreal. She is currently the coordinator for the Italian Language Program at the University of Montreal where she teaches Advanced Italian Grammar and Contemporary Italian Literature courses. She has previously taught Italian at McGill University. Her main fields of research are contemporary Italian fiction and contemporary Italian migrant writers.

MATHIEU BÉNÉZET was born in Perpignan in 1946. He lives and works in Paris where he has been a radio producer at France Culture for over fifteen years. Notably he has produced: the Sunday literary program Entre-revues and directed the radio workshop Atelier de Création. He also runs the Le Manifeste collection Éditions Comp'Act. He has created several journals such as Empreintes, L'Hebdomadaire grammaturgique erreurs, and Première Livraison and published more than thirty books.

ROSS M. BENJAMIN holds a BA in Critical Theory from Vassar College and received a Fulbright Research Scholarship to Berlin, Germany. He has published reviews, interviews, and an essay on Derrida and translates from German.

MARTIN WILMOT BENNETT's collection of poems, Loose Watches, was published by the University of Salzburg Press. He has had three stories read on BBC World Service and other works appear in Modern Poetry in Translation, Stand, Wascana Review, and elsewhere. Some of his poetry is available on

STEFANO BENNI, born in Bologna in 1947, gained a reputation as a talented writer with his first novel, Bar Sport (1976). Thereafter he published numerous hit books including Terra! (1983), Bar Sport Duemila (1997), Saltatempo (2001), and Margherita Dolcevita (2005); his most recent novel is Di tutte le richezze (2012). He is equally comfortable with poetry, theater, and cinema. Classics such as Vonnegut, Bohumil Hrabal, Gianni Celati, Gadda, Calvino, Landolfi, Volponi, and Elsa Moranti are ever-present influences in his work. Benni applies a fantastical touch in both his language and his ideas, using fantasy and science fiction to comment upon societal and political problems in Italy. His conscientious exercise of satire and lack of limits and taboos have earned him a fervent leftist following (and the nickname "Il Lupo"). He has enjoyed commercial success in Italy and seen translation of his more recent works into more than 20 languages.

ZIAD BENTAHAR holds a BA from Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco and an MA from Pennsylvania State University, where he is currently a doctoral candidate in Comparative Literature. His primary focus is African Literature, with a particular interest in the Maghreb and connections between North and sub-Saharan Africa.

JASON BENTSMAN is a writer of prose, poetry, and philosophy living in Brooklyn. Born in Minsk, Belarus (formerly part of the USSR), he has lived in the US since the age of one. His writings have appeared in a sprinkling of publications in the US and abroad. He is currently working on a dreamlike, allegorical novel set in an indeterminate city. You can find some of his work on his website For What It's Worth -

SASA BENULIC was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where she studied English and Comparative Literature and then taught English at a secondary school. She holds an MA in American Literature and teaches American Culture and Language Acquisition Classes at the University of Ljubljana.

RICHARD BERENGARTEN (formerly BURNS) has published over twenty books and his poetry has been translated into over ninety languages. His latest publication is his Selected Writings, in five volumes, published by Shearsman Books. He has received many literary awards. His involvement with Greece goes back to 1967, when he published The Easter Rising 1967, followed by Black Light, poems in memory of George Seferis, in the early 1980's. Richard Berengarten is a Bye-Fellow of Downing College, Cambridge, and a Praeceptor at Corpus Christ College. He is a Fellow of the English Association. A book of essays on his writings, The Salt Critical Companion to Richard Berengarten, was published in 2011.

MARK BERG was born in 1954 and grew up in Hopkinton Massachusetts. He received a BA in Russian language and literature at George Washington University in 1976, and has worked in the Harvard Law library since 1979. He learned Spanish "literally and figuratively" on the streets of Cordoba, and subsequently took courses at Harvard. He visits Italy and Spain every year, and also speaks Italian and Portuguese. His translations of six poems by Ibn Zaidun, translated from the Spanish, have appearedin Metamorphoses. He is currently preparing a translation of Possessed of Leila, a collection of poetry by Mahmud Sobh, for publication.

MARY G. BERG is a Resident Scholar at Brandeis University's Women's Studies Research Center. Her recent translations from the Spanish include poetry by Juan Ramon Jimenez (The Poet and the Sea, forthcoming 2009), Carlota Caulfield (A Mapmaker's Diary, 2007), Antonio Machado (The Landscape of Castile and There is no Road:Proverbs) and novels by Martha Rivera (I've Forgotten Your Name), Laura Riesco (Ximena at the Crossroads) and Libertad Demitropulos (River of Sorrows). She is the editor of three anthologies of recent Cuban stories, as well as many other books.

JOHN BERGER, novelist, painter, and art historian, was born in London in 1926. In 1952 Berger began writing for London's New Statesman, and quickly became an influential Marxist art critic. Since then he has published a number of art books including the famous Ways of Seeing, which was turned into a television series by the BBC. Beginning with his first novel in 1958, Berger has also produced a significant body of fiction, including G. (1972), winner of England's Booker Prize and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. He is also the author of screenplays and four plays for the stage. For the past twenty years Berger has lived in a small village in the French Alps. Fascinated by the traditions and endangered way of life of the mountain people, he has written about them both in his fiction and nonfiction.

ZACKARY SHOLEM BERGER writes poetry and prose in Yiddish and English. He lives in Baltimore.

JOEL BERKOWITZ is Corob Fellow in Yiddish at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, and Hebrew Centre Lecturer in Yiddish at Oxford University. He is the author of Shakespeare on the American Yiddish Stage (University of Iowa Press, forthcoming 2002) and editor of The Yiddish Theatre: New Approaches (Litmas Library, forthcoming 2002).


ADRIA BERNARDI has translated the poetry of Cristina Annino, Chronic Hearing: Selected Poems 1977-2012, and the poetry of Francesca Pellegrino, Chernobylove—The Day After the Wind: Selected Poems: 2008-2010.  She was awarded the 2007 Raiziss/de Palchi Translation Fellowship to complete Small Talk, a translation the poetry of Raffaello Baldini. She is the author of two novels, Openwork, and,The Day Laid on the Altar, which was awarded the 1999 Bakeless Prize, and a collection of short stories, In the Gathering Woods,which was awarded the 2000 Drue Heinz Literature Prize.  She is the author of a collection of essays, Dead Meander.

(?1130-?1195), one of the best known Provençal troubadours, was born in Aquitaine. Forty-five of his lyrics have survived, and nineteen of the melodies he composed.

CONON DE BÉTHUNE (fl. ca. 1180-1219/20) was born into a noble family of the Artois region in northern France; he was well known during his lifetime as a warrior, diplomat, and statesman, playing a leading role in the Fourth Crusade. Along with Blondel de Nesle, Gace Brulé, and the Châtelain de Coucy, he belonged to the first generation of trouvères. About a dozen songs are attributed to him.

PATRICK BEURARD-VALDOYE's recent works include Itinerrance, sites, cites, citains (Obsidiane, Sens); Theorie des noms (L'oeil du poete, Textuel, Paris); Notre etrange prison (L'arbre a paroles, Belgique). His poems have been translated into several languages. He lives in Paris.

CALIXTHE BEYALA was born in Cameroon in 1960. Since 1987, she has published eleven novels, a number of which have been translated into English. She has won two prestigious French literary awards: the Prix François Mauriac for her novel Assèze l'Africaine (1994), and the Grand Prix du Roman de l'Academie Française for her novel Les Honneurs perdues (1996). One of the most influential African voices in Paris, where she lives, Beyala is the founder and president of Collectif Égalité, an organization dedicated to promoting fair representation of French people of African descent in the French media.

MANASH BHATTACHARJEE is a poet, writer and political science scholar based in New Delhi. His poems have appeared in The London Magazine, New Welsh Review and The Fortnightly Review, among others. He has contributed essays, articles and reviews to Huffington Post, EPW, Outlook, The Hindu,Biblio, etc. His first collection of poetry, Ghalib's Tomb and Other Poems, was published by The London Magazine.

H.N. BIALIK (1873-1934) the greatest Hebrew poet of modern times, Bialik wrote essays and stories as well as working with translating and editing. He helped free Hebrew poetry from Biblical dominance while still retaining a connection to its roots. He often wrote about the crisis of faith which touched his generation as they sought to retain their medieval Jewish roots in a modern secularized world.

NEDRA EILEEN BICKHAM is a translator, musician, teacher, and explorer of the unique coexistence of language and music. Her translations of short stories by the German author Julia Franck have appeared in Passport: The Arkansas Review of Literary Translation, Absinthe: New European Writing, and lauter niemand: Berliner Zeitschrift fur Lyrik und Prosa. Her translations of poetry by Andreas Randow have appeared in Perihelion Poetry Journal. She is working on a master's degree in German Language and Literature from Tufts University.

WOLF BIERMANN, born in Hamburg in 1936, moved to the German Democratic Republic in 1953. Banned from performing and publishing there since 1965, he was expatriated during a concert tour to West Germany in 1976, causing many East German artists to leave the country in his wake. This poet, singer/songwriter and essayist has been one of the most eminent and prickly literary figures and critics of Germany before and since the reunification in 1989. Biermann received the Nationalpreis for his work in 1998.

MURRAY BIGGS Rhodes Scholar, former director of the MIT Shakespeare Ensemble, now teaches at Yale; he is well known as a lecturer on drama and literature and has spent the winter back in his old stamping grounds in London at the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art.

ANATOLE BILENKO is a unique figure among translators of Ukrainian literature. As a child he lived and attended school in the United States but returned with his parents to Ukraine where he made prolific use of his English language skills as a translator of literary texts. His translations first appeared during the Soviet era. He continues to translate today in Kyiv, where he lives.

YOSSEL BIRSTEIN (1920-2003) was born in Poland and lived there until 1937 when he moved to Australia where, he served in the army during the Second World War. He immigrated to Israel in 1950, where he remained until his last day.

HAIFA BITAR is a professional ophthalmologist who was born and still lives in the city of Lattakia, Syria. She has published nine novels and eleven short story collections. She is also is a regular essay contributor to a number of Arabic and international magazines.

RHONDA BLAIR is a professor of Theatre in Southern Methodist University. A director, solo performer, and actor, she teaches critical studies and performance theories. Her translations of The Seagull, The Cherry Orchard, and Hedda Gabler have been given a number of productions. Her writing appears in Method Acting Reconsidered, Upstaging Big Daddy: Directing Theater as if Gender and Race Mattered, Theatre Topics and elsewhere.

BOB BLANCHARD is a student in Cabrillo Community College in California.

IVAN BLATNY (born in Brno, 1919, died 1990 in England) As a young poet, he captured Brno for Czech poetry, turning its humdrum streets into an enchanting setting for small epiphanies. Since Nezval, no one has widened the rhythm of intoning and repetition as well as Blatny, who took lessons from Eliot's The Wasteland. In the aftermath of the War, Blatny, emerging transformed from the matrix of Skupina 42, was seen as one of the most promising younger poets. The three poems translated by Deborah Garfinkle come from Hledání prítomného casu (In Search of Time Present, 1947), the last volume of poetry he published in Czechoslovakia. In 1948, Blatny left for England and instantly cut off his moorings by declaring himself an exile. For more than thirty years he vanished from Czech poetry, until rediscovered as an inmate of a mental institution in Ipswich, still writing. His two volumes of verse, Stará bydliste (Old Dwellings, 1979) and Obecná skola Bixley (Grade School Bixley, 1987), conferred a cultic status on the forgotten poet. The latter collection speaks in an alien, multilingual idiom of Blatny's invention expressing the terminal condition of his exile with the intelligence of a Surrealist voyant derailed from his life's history.

MANUEL MARIA BARBOSA DU BOCAGE (1765-1805) a leading eighteenth century poet who travelled the world of Portugal's empire and drew parallels between himself and his predecessor, Camões. He was a typical romantic in his hatred of despotism, his love of personal freedom, his attachment to darkness and night, and his obsession with impending death.

PATRICIA J. BOEHNE is the Chair of Foreign Languages at Eastern College, St. Davids, PA. She received a BA, MA, and PhD from Indiana University, Bloomington, IN and was the first American to have a doctoral examination conducted in Catalan. She has held NDEA, NEH, and Mellon Fellowships and has taught at Indiana University, Bradley University, and Franklin and Marshall College. Among her publications are Dream and Fantasy in 14th and 15th Century Catalan Prose (1975), poetry translations for An Introduction to Catalan Poetry by Josep Roca-Pons (1977), J.V. Foix (1980), The Renaissance Catalan Novel (1989), numerous articles, and other translations of Foix's poetry. She was in correspondence with Foix from 1973 until his death in 1987, visited him several times in Barcelona and at his home on the Costa Brava, and researched in his personal archives. Her translations have been emended by the poet himself. Her anthology of his work, The Angular Sea, is in preparation. As a member of the Board of the North American Catalan Society since its inception in 1978, she has served in various offices, including as President from 1993-95.

LOREDANA BOGLIUN-DEBELJUH was born in Pola, Croatia in 1955. She holds a degree in psychology, and is a critic and fiction writer as well as a poet who writes both in standard Italian and in dialect. Her poems first appeared in 1972, and since then she has published numerous volumes of poetry in the (ancient) Istriot dialect of Dignano. Her work has been translated into many languages and she has won numerous prizes, among them the Istria Nobilissima prize for poetry and prose. She writes in both dialect and standard Italian and also translates, from Istrian dialect and from Croatian into Italian. An important cultural figure and also a political activist, she is Vice-President of the Giunta Regionale Istriana and a consigliere of the Assemblea dell'Unione Italiana.

LAURENCE BOGOSLAW received his PhD in Slavic Languages and Literatures from the University of Michigan in 1995. He currently lives in Minneapolis, where he is the co-founder and Coordinator of the Minnesota Translation Laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Bogoslaw's prose translation has appeared previously in Metamorphoses (1994), and his scholarly work on verse translation has appeared in the volume "Slavic Verse" (Slavjanskij Stikh, Moscow, 1996).

SISSELA BOK is a writer and philosopher born in Sweden. Formerly a Professor at Brandeis University, she is now a Distinguished Fellow at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. Her books include: Lying: Moral Choice in Private and Public Life; Secrets: On the Ethics of Concealment and Revelation; A Strategy for Peace: Human Values and the Threat of War; Alva Myrdal: A Daughter's Memoir.

LUIGI BONAFFINI has translated books by Dino Campana, Mario Luzi, Vittorio Sereni, Giose Rimanelli, Giuseppe Jovine, Achille Serrao, Eugenio Cirese, Albino Pierro, Cesare Ruffato, Stephen Massimilla, Antonio Spagnuolo, Luciano Troisio, Pier Paolo Pasolini, and Mariano Bàino. He has also translated widely from dialect poetry for various anthologies he has edited. He was awarded the Translation Prize from the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs as well as the Translation Prize from the Italian Ministry for Cultural Affairs for his translations, respectively, of Mario Luzi's Phrases and Passages of a Salutary Song and For the Baptism of our Fragments. He also received the Bordighera Translation Prize. In 2003 he received the Italian National Translation Prize.

EGON BONDY (b. 1930) Anarchist Czech poet now living in Prague where he lectures on Buddhism.

DEBORAH BONNER received her BA degree from Cornell University and since then has worked as a translator in Catalan, Spanish, and English in Barcelona and New York. Her translations from Catalan include Llorenç Villalonga's novel Bearn, Gabriel Janer Manila's non-fiction work Marcos, and translations of poetry in periodicals such as Catalan Writing, Seneca Review, and Translation.

ITXARO BORDA was born in Baiona/Bayonne (Basque Country) in 1959. She has degrees in Agriculture and History and works in the post office. She founded Maiatz, a literary journal (1982), together with Luzien Etxezaharreta. Her first book was published in 1984, Bizitza nola badoan (And So Life Goes, poetry). In 2002 she won the Euskadi Award with her novel 100% Basque, which has recently been published in French, translated by the author.

HEIDI VON BORN was born in Stockholm and has published twenty-seven books: novels, a short story collection, a few poetry collections, and a children's book. She is also a critic and has written drama for radio and television, translated poetry by Margaret Atwood and others.

HENRI BOSCO (1988-1976) is the celebrated author of over 30 volumes of poetry, fiction, and nonfiction prose. His work has been acclaimed by the French philosopher Gaston Bachelard, who cites Malicroix extensively throughout The Poetics of Space.

ANA MARIA ANDRINO BOTELHO was born in Manica (Mozambique). She spent her adolescence in Maputo, until the civil war forced her to seek refuge in Portugal. She received a degree in Law from Lisbon and in Philosophy from Rome. She now lives between Rome and Geneva, where she works in the field of humanitarian mine removal and disarmament. She writes in Portugese, French, and Italian. Some of her poems have been set to music by contemporary composers, and her poetry is the constant unifier of the various places and times of her life. Her poetry collection, dall'esilio (Rome: Fermenti), was published in 2002.

SANDRO BOTTICELLI (1444-1510) Italian painter at the court of Lorenzo de' Medici.

IBTISSAM BOUACHRINE is Assistant Professor of medi- eval and early modern Iberian Studies at Smith College. She is also affiliated with the Middle East Studies Program at Smith. She writes and teaches about medieval and early modern Iberian and Maghribi literatures and cultures and is currently finishing Making Sense of Muslim Women, a book-length study about the representation of Muslim women in the western Mediterranean. She participated in the NEH Summer Seminar on "The Medieval Mediterranean and the Emergence of the West."

PANTELIS BOUKALAS is a significant voice in the landscape of contemporary Greek poetry, and among the country's foremost literary and cultural critics. He has published seven volumes of poetic texts starting with 1980's Algorithm. Other books include Evdokia's Excursion (1982), The Innter Panther (1985), The Oracle (1994), When there was a Plane-Tree (1999) and most recently, Rimata (Verbs/Sayings) (2009), recipient of Greece's presigious State Prize for Poetry. Since 1989 he is the editor of the literary section of the daily newspaper Kathimerini—where his own essays, reviews and opion peices often appear. A first selection of essarys, Possibly: Landmarks in Greek and other literary art, appeared in 1996. His translation include Epitaph Words: Ancient Greek funerary epigrams (2001) and key works of ancient drama, Aischylus'Agamemnon and Aristophanes' Acharnians (both 2005).

DAVID BOURBEAU A master book-binder and proprietor of Thistle Bindery in Florence, Massachusetts. He has been invited by the Italian Ministry of Culture to participate in an international exhibition to honor the bicentennial of the birth of Giacomo Leopardi. The book produced especially for this exhibition is a collection of translations of Leopardi's "L'Infinito" by sixty-three poets in twenty-eight languages over a period of 167 years.

MARCEL BOURQUIN Student of theology in Switzerland. Idealist, mystic, pacifist, socialist, he was never admitted to the Consistoires de Pasteurs in Geneva because of his political beliefs. Died praying for the New Pope who was inaugurated that day, March 3, 1939. Left a treasure trove of letters of which the one published in issue 4.1 is a fair example.

ANNIE BOUTELLE, born and raised in Scotland, was educated at the University of St. Andrews and New York University. Author of Thistle and Rose: A Study of Hugh MacDiarmid's Poetry, she has written numerous scholarly and popular essays. She teaches in the English Department at Smith College, whose Poetry Center she founded in 1998. Her sequence of poems based on the life of Celia Thaxter was a finalist for the 1999 Walt Whitman Award of the Academy of American Poets, and she has published poems in Poetry, Yankee, Ekphrasis, The Green Mountains Review, and The Hudson Review. Poems are forthcoming in The Larcom Review, American Poets and Poetry, Poet Lore, Iris, Painted Bride, and Nimrod.

SANDRO BOTTICELLI (1444-1510) Italian painter at the court of Lorenzo de' Medici.

DAVID BOWLES has taught English and education courses at the University of Texas Pan American since 1997. Drawn to the culture and history of Mexico and the U.S. Southwest, he focuses on the study of indigenous philosophy, mythology, and legend through primary sources. His book Flower, Song, Dance: Aztec and Mayan Poetry was awarded the Souerette Diehl Fraser Award for Best Translation by the Texas Institute of Letters. Among his other publications are Shattering and Bricolage, Mexican Bestiary (2012), and Border Lore: Folktales and Legends of South Texas (forthcoming from Lamar University Press). His translations have been featured in multiple publications, including Translation Review, Rattle, Huizache, Eye to the Telescope, Parabola and BorderSenses.

Her poems known to every Swedish schoolchild, poet and novelist KARIN BOYE (1900-1941), mystic, modernist, anti-imperialist, lesbian is contained by none of these categories. Co-founder of the journal Spektrum, she translated T.S. Eliot into Swedish. She authored five novels and five collections of poetry (the last published posthumously) before her death by suicide. The Karin Boye society website is at

ROSA ALICE BRANCO is a contemporary Portuguese poet with more than a dozen poetry collections (the most recent of which is Live Concert), as well as several books on perception. She teaches the Psychology of Perception and Contemporary Culture at the Institute of Art and Design (Porto, Portugal). Her poetry collection Cattle of the Lord, translated by Alexis Levitin, is forthcoming from Milkwood Editions.

FIAMA HASSE PAIS BRANDÄO is the major poet of her generation in Portugal. She has published fourteen volumes of poetry, the most recent of which, Epistles and Memoranda, won the D. Dinis Prize in late 1997 and the Grande Premio de Poesia from the Portuguese Writers Association in February 1998. Her work has appeared in French, Italian, Spanish, German, Polish, and English. In the U.S., Levitin's authorized translations of Fiama's disturbingly powerful poems have appeared in numerous magazines, including The Partisan Review, The Massachusetts Review, Prairie Schooner, Seneca Review, Artful Dodge, The Connecticut Poetry Review, The Green Mountain Review, and Abraxas.

DARCY L. BRANDEL is Associate Professor and Chair of the English and Modern Languages Department at Marygrove College in Detroit, Michigan. She led the charge to establish the first Women's Center on campus and now serves on its advisory board. Her fields of interest include literature by women, multi-ethnic literature, comparative women's studies, critical theory, aesthetic theory, creative writing, Buddhism, and translation. She has published work on Gertrude Stein, Grace Paley, and other experimental women writers and, along with Chae-Pyong Song, translations of Korean Buddhist poetry. She is currently working on her first manuscript of poetry.


PER AAGE BRANDT (b. 1944) has published over thirty books of poetry in Danish. He has authored several books in the areas of semiotics, linguistics, and culture. His many awards include the Emil Aarestrup Medal, the French Academy's Grand Prix de Philosophie, and the Order of the Dannebrog.

SUSAN BRANTLY is professor of Scandinavian Literature at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, specializing in Swedish.

GEORGES BRAQUE (1882-1963) French painter, with Picasso an initiator of the cubist movement. His aphorisms on the need for order and intelligence gave voice informally to the aspirations of the cubists whose influence is still resonating in contemporary art.

OLGA BRESSANO DE ALONSO was born in Argentina, in the city of Rosario, the province of Santa Fé. After receiving a Master’s Degree in Literature at the University of Rosario she began to write poetry, essays, novels and children’s literature. She has been a recipient of numerous awards from Argentina, Spain, Israel and many other Latin American countries. She continues to travel extensively throughout the world presenting her work, conducting research and writing. She is a member of many Latin American and Iberian organizations and is also of the Culture and Scientific Interchange of Argentina and Israel.

ELIZABETH BRASINGTON graduated from Smith College in 2012 with a degree in Middle East Studies.

TIM BRELINSKI is a Lecturer in Classics at the University of California, Davis. He received his PhD in Classics from the University of Virginia in 2008. Homeric epic is his primary area of research, but literary translation has also been a deep and abiding interest.


RONALDO BRESSANE is a journalist, writer, and editor. He was born in Sao Paulo in 1970. He has published the trilogy of short stories Outra comedia, which includes Os infernos possiveis (1999), 10 presidios de bolso (2001) and Ceu de Lucifer (2003); and the books of poems O impostor (2002) and Cada vez que ella dice X (2008). He directed the literary project Essa historia esta diferente(Companhia das Letras, 2010), in which Mario Bellatin, Joao Gilberto Noll, Rodrigo Fresan, and other writers adapted Chico Buarque's musical compositions into short stories. Bressane is one of the most renowned figures in promoting Brazilian literature on the internet.

MARÍA ISABEL ALONSO BRETO holds a PhD in English Philology from the University of Barcelona where she is currently a member of the Department of English and German Literatures. Her areas of interest include literary translation (especially women's poetry written in English) and creative writing.

BRHAN was born in Asmara (Eritrea). Since 1984 he has lived in Tuscany, where he earned his degree from the Humanities Department of the University of Florence. He has published in various anthologies, including Quaderno africano I of the Cittadini della Poesia series (Florence: Loggia de' Lanzi, 1998), and the poetry collection L'ombra del poeta (Viareggio: Mauro Baroni, 1997).

TONY BRINKLEY teaches English at the University of Maine, where he is also the Senior Faculty Associate at the
 University’s Franco-American Centre. His translations have appeared in Beloit Poetry Journal, Cerise Press, Drunken Boat, Four Centuries, The Hungarian Review, The New Review of Literature, Otoliths, Shofar, and World Literature Today. Recent translations include poetry by Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Valéry, Rilke, Mandelshtam, Tsvetaeva, Pasternak, and Akhmatova.

DANIEL G. BRINTON American ethnologist, a pioneer in the study of the languages of Meso-Americans.

(1930-1995) Russian-American poet, Nobel Prize Winner. Author of half a dozen volumes of poetry in Russian and English (with many self-translations), essayist, formerly Professor of Literature at Mount Holyoke, and at the other Colleges in the Five Colleges Area. Served as a member of the Editorial Board of Metamorphoses before his death.

MARIE BRONSARD lives and works in southern France. Since 1986 she has published narratives, memoirs, and collections of shorter pieces, mostly in prose, but including poetry as well. Among her latest works are her memoir, Mélancolies d'Une Amazone, published in 2004, and Monodies augmented by Lueurs, a selection of Ms. Bronsard's short pieces of prose and poetry, which appeared in 2006.

VINCENT BROOK (1946- ) Has a PhD in film and television from UCLA, has written numerous articles for leading academic journals, and is the author of Something Ain't Kosher Here: The Rise of the "Jewish" Sitcom (Rutgers University Press, 2003). The son of German-Jewish émigrés, Vincent studied, travelled, and worked in Germany in the late 1960s/early 1970s. He is currently editing an anthology for Rutgers on Jewish identity in postmodern American culture.

DIANA BALDINI BROWN has studied in her native Argentina, France, Spain and the US. Professor and Chair of Languages and International Studies at Dana College and Midland University (Nebraska), she also teaches French and Spanish at the University of Nebraska. Her translations (from French, Spanish, and Ladino) have been published in Argentina, Israel and the US.

KEVIN BROWN Translator Kevin Brown's interview with Gregory Rabassa appeared in the December 2006 issue (Vol. 7 No. 2) of the University of Delaware's Review of Latin American Studies. His translation of Virginia Woolf's little-known essay "Reviewing" (1939) appeared in the Winter 2006 issue of the Iowa University translation journal, exchanges.

IAN BROWNLIE received his MA in Russian from the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. His current whereabouts are unknown.

CHRISTOPHER MICHAEL BRUNELLE teaches classics at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. He has published several articles on Ovid and on pedagogy, and excerpts of his translation of the Ars amatoria have appeared in Classical Outlook, Light, and Amphora.

PETERS BRUVERIS was born in Riga in 1957, and after graduating from the Department of Art and Culture at the Latvian State Conservatory worked as a literary consultant to the newspaper Latvijas Jaunatne (Latvian Youth) and as the director of the literary department of the newspaper Literatura un Maksla (Art and Literature). Eight collections of his poetry have been published: Black Thrush, Red Cherries (1987), Amber Skulls (1991), Sitting On A Park Bench (1994), Black Bird's Nest in the Heart (1995), Flowers for Losers! (1999), Love Me God (2000), The Landscape of Language (2004), and Behind Glass (2006). He has also written four books for children. Bruveris has written librettos, song lyrics as well as texts for animation films. He translated and edited a collection of Turkish poetry entitled "Courtyards Filled with Pigeons" (1988, together with Uldis Berzis), translated the works of Lithuanian poets Kornelijs Platelis, Sigits Gedas, Henriks Raudausks, Toms Venclova, as well as many other works of poetry, and has translated poetry and prose from Azerbaijani, the Crimean Tatar language, Russian, Germany, and Prussian. His poetry has been published in Lithuanian, Russian, Swedish, German, Slovenian, Ukrainian, and English translation. He has received the Klavs Elsbergs Award (1987), the Publisher Preses Nams Award in Literature in 2000 and 2001, the Days of Poetry Prize in 2001 and 2005, the Award in Literature from the Baltic Assembly in 2004, the Ojars Vacietis Poetry Prize (2006), and the National Prize for Best Book (2007).

C. JOHN BURK is married to Istanbul native Lale Aka [Burk] and has a longstanding interest in modern Turkish fiction. He is Elsie Damon Simonds Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences at Smith College.

JOHN BURNS is Assistant Professor of Spanish at Rockford University where he specializes in contemporary Latin American literature. He has published English-language translations of a variety of Galician poets, ranging from Manoel-Antonio's De catro a catro to contemporary works by poets such as Xosé Luís Méndez Ferrín, Chus Pato and María do Cebreiro. Recently, Burns and Mexican poet Rubén Medina translated and edited Una tribu de salvajes improvisando a las puertas del infierno, an extensive anthology of Beat poetry, much of which had never before been available in Spanish. The Beat anthology was published in Mexico by Aldus and Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León in 2012.

MARK S. BURROWS's recent publications include recently completed a volume of Hilde Domin's poems, tentatively entitled "This Wide Wing, My Word." Rainer Maria Rilke's Prayers of a Young Poet, the first English translation of the original draft for the poet's Book of Hours (Part I), which he entitled "The Prayers"; a volume of poems entitled 99 Psalms by the Iranian writer SAID, a refugee to Germany under the Shah (exiled a second time after the Islamic Revolution of 1979), who has been writing and publishing poetry and non-fiction in German since the early 1970s. Both of these volumes were published by Paraclete Press. He has recently completed a volume of Hilde Domin's poems, tentatively entitled "This Wide Wing, My Word." He is the poetry editor for Spiritus: A Journal of Christian Spirituality. He is currently on the faculty of the University of Applied Sciences in Bochum, Germany.

ANDRZEJ BURSA (1932-1957) Before his life was cut short at age twenty-five by a malformed aorta, he published thirty-seven poems, a novel, and two plays. A native of Krakow, he attended Jagiellonian University, after which he worked as a journalist. Bursa's adolescence and early adult life span some of the darkest years of modern Polish history—from the Nazi invasion and brutal occupation during World War II to the Soviet occupation and Cold War. Bursa bitterly attacks social and political injustice, as well as cant, pretense, and hypocrisy. Bursa's language can be deliberately anti-poetic. He mixes obscure words, neologisms, regionalisms, slang, and occasional vulgarity. His grammar is often raw, elliptical, and clumsy, perhaps intended to reflect the caustic disillusionment of his generation. Below the surface of this poète maudit sneering cynicism, however, one finds serious moral questioning along with genuine tenderness and compassion for the poor and disenfranchised. His poems lament the erosion of traditional values caused by conflicting geo-political ideologies. Bursa's reputation increased rapidly after his death, his small oeuvre developing a cult following among young people.