Smith Style Guide

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | W | Z

This is the latest version of our evolving style guide. It is intended to be used as a reference for Smith-specific words and phrases and for maintaining consistency. It also includes answers to some common questions about usage and punctuation.

If your questions are not addressed here, please consult the Associated Press Stylebook (AP) or Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, the standard style references for college publications. (If using AP online, please do NOT rely on the "Ask the Editor" question-and-answer section.)

A

abbreviations: Use periods with abbreviations. Avoid using abbreviations in running text. A few standard abbreviations may be used only when it's customary (a.m. or B.C.E.).

Abbreviate academic degrees only when they follow a name. Use periods in abbreviations for academic degrees and in most two-letter abbreviations (D.Litt., A.B., Ph.D.; U.S., a.m., Ms.).

See also academic degrees, addresses, dates, eras and state names.

acronyms: Acronyms that appear in full caps do not take periods (FAFSA). Spell out acronyms on first reference unless they are well known, such as NAACP.

academic degrees: Use lowercase and spell out degrees mentioned in text: associate degree, bachelor's degree, baccalaureate, bachelor of fine arts; master's degree; doctorate, doctoral degree. Abbreviate degrees appearing after names (Jane Wyley, Ph.D.)

Note: Smith confers the A.B., S.B., A.M. and S.M. degrees. Smith's undergraduate degree in biological sciences is considered a bachelor of arts or an A.B.; its graduate degree in biological sciences is the master of science, or S.M.  Smith offers two engineering degrees: the bachelor of arts in engineering arts and the bachelor of science in engineering science. 

academic departments: Capitalize only when the full formal name is used (Department of Biological Sciences, biological sciences department). Formal and informal names may be used interchangeably, though audience sensitivity should be exercised. Department names can be checked against the Smith College website. See also offices on campus.

academic disciplines: Use lowercase for academic subjects, majors and minors, and courses of study—except in cases that include a proper noun. (English language and literature, Afro-American studies, medieval studies). See capitalization.

academic titles: Follow the general rules under titles of people. Use lowercase in text, but capitalize when a title precedes a name (Associate Professor Judith Cardell). Long titles should appear after names and be set off by commas. Exception: Named professorships and full formal titles denoting academic honors are always capitalized, even when following a personal name or standing alone (Miriam Petry, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada; William Allan Oram, Helen Means Professor of English Language and Literature). Capitalize the title "scholar" when it is part of a named scholarship (Rhodes Scholar, an Ada Comstock Scholar). See also emerita, professor and fellow.

academic year: See class year, numbers and first-year students.

Ada Class Deans Office

Ada Comstock Scholars, Ada Comstock Scholars Program: Always capitalized. Indicated by "AC" after names of alumnae (as in Barbara Smith AC or followed by a space and then the class year, if known: Susan Jones AC '92). Avoid using "Adas"; although this reference is fairly common, some consider it demeaning. See nontraditional-aged students.

addresses

In college addresses, state the building before the room (College Hall 5, Neilson Library Browsing Room). Spell out the names of college buildings. Avoid abbreviations in running text. See building names, house, state names and Web addresses.

admission office: Smith College Office of Admission (note singular)

Advanced Placement, AP

adviser, advisory

Afro-American studies department

age: See numbers.

Ainsworth Gymnasium (building name), Ainsworth gym (the room)

All-America: sports term

all-college meeting

alma mater

alumna (fem. singular), alumnae (fem. plural). Varies according to gender and number. Avoid using "alums." See class year.

Alumnae Gymnasium (houses the College Archives, next to Neilson Library)

and/or: Avoid this construction; use one or the other.

application forms: Use lowercase when referring to forms (admission application, common application form, health services form).

athletics and recreation department; Department of Athletics (note the plural) and Recreation, formerly the Department of Athletics. See also sports-related terms.

awards: Names of awards and prizes are capitalized, but some generic terms used with the names are lowercased. (a Nobel Prize winner; the Nobel Prize in literature; a Nobel Prize–winning physicist; the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary).

B

bachelor's degree: Smith awards the bachelor of arts, abbreviated as A.B.; and the bachelor of science, S.B.

bias-free and inclusive language: Avoid stereotyping or using language that is insensitive to cultural differences or that unwittingly marginalizes, excludes or offends any group of people (whether because of gender, ethnicity, religion, class, age, sexual orientation or body size).

biological sciences: (formerly biology). See also academic degrees.

Smith College Board of Trustees (capitalize the full name only). Use lowercase for the generic reference, even when referring to Smith: the board of trustees.

boathouse: Smith College boathouse (one word, lowercase)

bookstore: Smith College Bookstore (formerly Grécourt Bookshop)

botanic garden, Smith College Botanic Garden (Capitalize only when using the full formal name.)

brand names or trademarks: Substitute a generic term when available (photocopy, tissue). The trademark symbol is unnecessary. Avoid using trademarked names as verbs (terms such as Photoshopped, Xeroxed, Googling and Tweeting can be replaced by photo editing, copied, searching and posting).

building names: Capitalize the names of specific buildings, use lowercase for generic terms (Neilson Library, the library; Brown Fine Arts Center). Consult the Smith College map online for accurate names of campus buildings. See also addresses, capitalization and house.

C

Campus Center: capitalized (This is the formal name for the building.)

Campus Police, Campus Police Department: formerly Public Safety

Campus School

capitalization: Capitalize the full formal names of college departments and offices, course titles, committees, divisions, associations, prizes, programs, institutes, grants, awards, scholarships, buildings and rooms. Use lowercase when the names are shortened or when used as a generic term. (Smith College, the college; Office of Admission, admission office; Ainsworth lounge, botanic garden). When in doubt, use lowercase. Exceptions: Campus Center; Campus Police is always capitalized when referring to the Smith College Campus Police Department.

Lowercase the common noun elements of names in plural uses (the rivers Connecticut and Manhan; Amherst and Mount Holyoke colleges).

headlines and composition titles: Capitalize the principal words—nouns, verbs, adverbs, pronouns and interjections. Capitalize only those conjunctions and prepositions consisting of four or more letters. For hyphenated compounds, the same general capitalization rules apply to the elements following the hyphen. If the first element of the hyphenated compound is a prefix that cannot stand by itself as a word, do not capitalize the second element (Anti-intellectualism). 

See also academic titles, academic disciplines, course titles and titles.

catalog: preferred spelling. Smith College Course Catalog is the official title of the publication; do not capitalize "catalog" when used generically (college catalog).

Centers for Engagement, Learning and Leadership: Center for Community Collaboration; Center for the Environment, Ecological Design and Sustainability; Phoebe and John D. Lewis Global Studies Center; Wurtele Center for Work and Life; Women and Financial Independence

Center for Religious and Spiritual Life: formerly the Office of Religious and Spiritual Life

central check-in, CCI

chair: Avoid using "chairman." You could also use "presiding officer," "coordinator" or "convener."

Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech: formerly Clarke School for the Deaf. Another name change: Smith College/Clarke Graduate Program in Teacher Education.

Office of the Class Deans; class deans office (no apostrophe)

class year: Lowercase when spelled out: class of 1934. When stating name and year of graduation, use space after name and apostrophe with year. (Julia Child '34). References between 1879 and 100 years before the present year should include the entire year (Alice Jones 1892). See also Ada Comstock Scholars.

"sophomore," "junior" and "senior" are always lowercased. See also first-year students and upper-class students.

commas See punctuation.

Commencement, Commencement Weekend: capitalize when referring to Smith College.

common application form

Community Service Office (formerly Service Organizations of Smith or S.O.S.)

computer and technology terms: email, webpage. See also Web.

concentrations: Use lowercase when citing Smith's academic concentrations (archives concentration, concentration in archives; Buddhist studies).

Copy and Print Services

corporation names: On first reference, use the corporation's full formal name (Ford Motor Company); the shortened name can be used for subsequent references (Ford). To confirm the actual name, consult the AP Stylebook under "company names," look at the online Nasdaq listing or at the copyright notice at the bottom of the corporation's home page. Capitalize "The" if it's part of the official name. Do not use all capital letters (Ikea) unless the letters are individually pronounced (BMW).

Inc.: When included as part of a company's name, do not set off with a comma. Exception: Five Colleges, Incorporated.

Counseling Service (part of Health Services)

course work

course titles: Use initial caps for full titles of courses; do not use italics or quotation marks. (Cell Biology; an introductory history course; AAS 245 The Harlem Renaissance)

cross-country (noun and adjective)

cross-cultural cross-listed (verb)

D

dashes: See punctuation and dates.

dates: Use a comma when including the day (Tuesday, September 14, 2004; January 15, 1988) but not with month and year only (January 1988). Do not abbreviate names of days or months in running text. Avoid using a dash with "from" or "between" (incorrect: from May 7–April 14; correct: from May 7 to April 14). It is not necessary to repeat the month in citing a range of dates: May 7–14). Use cardinal numbers (August 7, rather than August 7th). See also centuries and decades under numbers listing, as well as eras.

deaf: Describes a person with total hearing loss. For others, use "partial hearing loss" or "partially deaf." Use "hearing-impaired" as an adjective, not a noun.

dean's list

degrees: See academic degrees.

Dining Services

persons with disabilities: the preferred term; do not use "the disabled," "handicapped" or "the impaired." The term "accessible" is preferred over "handicap-accessible"; "developmentally disabled" or "intellectually disabled" or "mentally disabled" are also preferred. Avoid euphemisms and terms that evoke pity, such as "victim of," "afflicted with" or "suffers from."

dorm, dormitory: Do not use when referring to Smith campus housing. Smith students live in houses. See house.

dual degree programs

E

Early Decision Plans: Early Decision I, Early Decision II (formerly Fall Early Decision, Winter Early Decision)

eDigest: the college's official vehicle for distributing news via email

email: Use as a noun or an adjective, not as a verb. The plural form is "email messages" (not "emails"). 

emerita (fem., singular); emeritae (fem., plural); emeritus (male, singular); emeriti (male, plural). These are honorary designations and do not simply mean "retired." As in all titles of people, lowercase when used as a generic description but capitalize when used before a name or as an official part of a named professorship (Professor Emerita Susan Waltner, Elsie Irwin Sweeney Professor Emeritus of Music).

eras: C.E. and B.C.E.—Common Era and Before the Common Era are the preferred terms (considered to be more inclusive than A.D. and B.C.). C.E., like A.D., always precedes the year (C.E. 500).

ethnic and national designations: Try to use the preferred, specific identifications. National-origin identifiers do not require hyphens, even when used as modifiers (Polish American newspaper).

exercise and sport studies; Department of Exercise and Sport Studies (note the singular "sport" in both the minor and the department)

extension: Spell out this word for all campus telephone numbers. Exception: If space is limited, use "ext." but never "x".

F

Facilities Management: formerly Physical Plant

faculty: singular. Add the word "members" to make it plural.

Faculty Council

Family Weekend (formerly Parents Weekend)

fellow, fellowship: Lowercase when used on their own, capitalize when used with a proper name (Fulbright Fellow).

festivities: The following Smith celebrations are capitalized: Commencement and Reunion (when referring to Smith only), Family Weekend, Ivy Day, Mountain Day, Opening Convocation, Otelia Cromwell Day, Rally Day, Julia Child Day.

fieldwork (but course work)

first-year students: Avoid using the word "freshmen."

fitness center

Five Colleges, Incorporated: All formal references to the title of the consortium should appear with the word "Incorporated" written in full and preceded by a comma. Capitalize "Five College" in anything associated with the Five College Consortium, either officially or unofficially (Five College Department of Dance, Five College Buddhist Studies Certificate, Five College professor, Five College Cooperative Doctoral Program, Five College interchange, Five College bus service, Five College students). Do not capitalize when referring to the five colleges in general (and not the consortium).

Ford Hall: Smith's building for the sciences and engineering

foreign words and phrases: Use italics for foreign words or phrases, except those that have been incorporated into everyday American usage. (Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is a good source for determining accepted usage.) When using a foreign term more than once in the same article, second and later appearances should not be italicized.

fundraising, fundraiser: One word in all cases

Fulbright Fellow, Fulbright Scholar

G

the Gamut (in the Mendenhall Center for Performing Arts), upper Gamut, lower Gamut

geographic locations: General compass points and terms derived from them are lowercased if they simply refer to direction or location (western Massachusetts). Regional terms are generally capitalized (a Southern accent, East Coast, the Northeast, Western Hemisphere). General terms are always lowercased (the valley). Capitalize legendary and popular names (Big Apple, Happy Valley). See addresses and state names.

global south studies (formerly "third-world development studies"); global south. These terms are preferred over "underdeveloped" or "third world." "Economically developing nations" is another accepted alternative.

Gold Key guide

grade point average, GPA

Graham Hall (the lecture hall in Hillyer Hall)

Grécourt Gates (plural "gates," the structure in front of College Hall), Grécourt Gate (singular, Smith's online news site)

gymnasiums: plural (preferred over "gymnasia")

H

Health Services: Capitalize when referring to the Smith office.

hearing-impaired: Use as an adjective, not as a noun.

Helen Hills Hills Chapel (No, it's not a misprint.)

Hillyer Art Library, Hillyer lounge

historic, historical: Preceded by the article "a" (not "an")

historical periods: A descriptive designation of a period is usually lowercased (baroque, colonial period, nuclear age). Exception: "Renaissance" is capitalized to avoid ambiguity. Names of prehistoric periods are generally capitalized: Ice Age, Bronze Age. Consult the "historical periods and events" entry in the AP Stylebook.

holidays: Veterans Day (no apostrophe), Mother's Day. For Smith events, see festivities.

honorary degree, honorary doctorate, honors

honors thesis

house: Smith-specific term for student residence building (not "dorm" or "dormitory")

house system

I

ID, IDs, Smith ID: No periods; often doubles as OneCard 

Illumination Night

independent study

Indoor Track and Tennis Facility, ITT

Insight: Smith's online journal of scholarship and research

interdepartmental major or minor

international students: Use "international" when referring to people (avoid the term "foreign").

Office of International Students and Scholars: formerly "Office of International Students"

Internet

interterm: Do not use "intersession," "January term" or "J-term."

Ivy Day, Ivy Day Awards Convocation (formerly Last Chapel)

J

Jacobson Center for Writing, Teaching and Learning

Jean Picker Semester-in-Washington Program

John M. Greene Hall

judicial board or Student Government Judicial Board, SGA Judicial Board

Junior Year Abroad: No longer used at Smith, except in a historical context. See study abroad.

K

Kosher Kitchen, Kosher Co-op Kitchen, kosher food

L

Lazarus Center for Career Development (formerly Career Development Office); Lazarus Center (on second reference)

Leo Weinstein Auditorium

liberal arts advisers: formerly "premajor advisers"

Lyman Conservatory, the conservatory. Avoid "plant house."

M

major and minor: Lowercase these terms and the names of academic fields (minoring in English language and literature, a Jewish studies major).

master's degrees: Smith confers the A.M. and the S.M. See also academic degrees.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics: formerly the Department of Mathematics

McConnell roof observatory

medalist: winner of the Smith College Medal

Mendenhall Center for the Performing Arts; the performing arts center

Mendenhall Fellows

minority: Try to avoid this word and focus instead on diversity. Use specific identification if relevant (Asian American, Cuban) or "underrepresented groups" if applicable and specifics are not known. See ethnic and national designations entry.

Mortimer Rare Book Room

Mount Holyoke: not Mt. Holyoke

Mountain Day

museum of art: Capitalize only when referring to the full name: Smith College Museum of Art. Use lowercase "museum" for generic references to the Smith museum.

Mwangi Cultural Center

N

names of people: Do not use courtesy titles (Dr., Ms., Mrs., or Mr.). On second second and subsequent references, use last names only—not first names. Use Jr., II and so on with complete names only and eliminate the preceding comma.

Neilson Library Browsing Room, the college library, Neilson Library

newspaper and magazine titles: Capitalize these titles and set in italics, exactly as they appear in the masthead or on their Web sites, including punctuation and preceding article (The New York Times, The Albany Times-Union, Time magazine). See titles.

nontraditional-aged students, students of nontraditional college age. Use when referring to Ada Comstock Scholars; avoid saying "older students."

numbers: Spell out numbers one through nine, use figures for 10 and above, even when this means mixing words and numerals in the same sentence. This rule holds for ordinals as well.

Spell out numbers when they appear as the first word of the sentence or recast the sentence (preferred). Use commas in numbers of four or more digits (2,367), except in dates, addresses and page numbers. Large rounded numbers should be spelled out (nearly a thousand people; 2 million residents).

academic year (2013-14) When citing academic years, use an en dash and do not repeat the century.

age: Always use numerals (a 5-year-old, the 5-year-old boy).

fractions: Use figures for all fractions larger than one; spell out for less than one (1-1/2; two-thirds).

centuries and decades: Use an s without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades (1930s, the '30s) or centuries (1800s); hyphenate adjectival forms of centuries (18th-century architecture). (See also eras.)

money: Use numerals, not words, for all dollar amounts, and eliminate zeros when possible. Use numbers and words when citing more than six figures: $6 million drive, $40 billion.

percentages: Always use numerals for percentages and spell out the word (7 percent).

telephone numbers: Use hyphens with area code: 413-584-2700. (This is a change in Smith style because of cell phone use, which often requires area codes.) See also extension.

temperature: Always use numerals, spell out "plus" and "minus" (do not use symbols), and spell out "degrees" (minus 20 degrees, 7 degrees below zero).

See also addresses, dates, class year and time of day entries.

O

offices on campus: Capitalize the full names of all administrative offices (Office of College Relations, Office of the Class Deans, Office of Human Resources); lowercase generic references (human resources).

OneCard

online

Opening Convocation: See festivities.

Orientation Capitalize when referring to Smith programs. 

P

pass/fail grading option

Picker Engineering Program, the Picker program (not to be confused with the Jean Picker Semester-in-Washington Program)

plurals: Do not use an apostrophe for plurals of acronyms: SATs, DVDs. See capitalization for plurals of common noun elements used with proper names.

No apostrophe is necessary when pluralizing numbers or letters, including letter grades (the 1930s, two Bs and a C–); however, use an apostrophe with the letter grade A to avoid misreading (two A's).

Latin plurals: addenda, analyses, consortia, criteria, curricula, data, media, millennia, theses, syllabi, symposia

Anglicized plurals: appendixes, colloquiums, gymnasiums, indexes, memorandums

Praxis Internship

possessives: Singular proper names ending in s take only an apostrophe: Morris' designs, Williams' speech

prefixes: Compounds formed with prefixes are normally closed (not hyphenated). For further information, consult Webster's Dictionary or the AP Stylebook. Examples: multicultural, nonprofit, prelaw, prehealth, premedical, postdoctoral, postseason; but co-author, co-worker.

professor: In running text, all faculty members at any rank may be generically referred to as "professor," provided their full, accurate title is cited beforehand in the text.

professorships, named: Full titles of named professorships are always capitalized, even when they appear after the professor's name. (Martha A. Ackelsberg, William R. Kenan, Jr., Professor of Government and professor of the study of women and gender)

punctuation: This entry addresses only those questions related to Smith style and is not meant to be comprehensive. See the "Guide to Punctuation" chapter in the AP Stylebook for a more complete explanation.

apostrophe: See possessives, holidays, decades and plurals.

commas

series Use for words in series of three or more after every item except the last and next to the last (performances on Thursday, Friday and Saturday). Exception: Use a comma after the next to the last item if it helps avoid ambiguity. (Examples: undergraduate, business, and graduate and professional schools; the required courses are Elementary German, Reading German, and Conversation and Composition.) When some items in the list contain internal commas, semicolons should be used between the items (and before the final conjunction as well).

ellipses

Used only to indicate missing words or phrases in quotations

hyphens

Hyphenate compound modifiers when they precede nouns (an awe-inspiring sight, a well-prepared meal); leave open when they follow nouns (the sight was awe inspiring, the meal was well prepared). See also prefixes.

Do not hyphenate well-established compound modifiers (a high school play, the civil rights movement).

Do not hyphenate modifiers containing an adverb ending in "ly" (mildly irritating fellow, a highly complex question).

Suspensive hyphenation: For phrasal adjectives sharing a common element. Example: He received a 10- to 20-year sentence.

quotation marks

Periods and commas generally go inside closing quotation marks.

Colons, semicolons, question marks and exclamation points follow closing quotation marks unless a they are part of the quoted matter.

R

re-create (to create again), recreate (to take recreation)

Office of the Registrar; registrar's office

religious titles: the Rev. Richard Phillips (include the article the before the title; not Rev. or Reverend Phillips (Please consult AP Stylebook—this subject can be complicated.) Use last name only in subsequent references.

Renaissance: See also historical periods entry.

Resource Center for Gender and Sexuality in Wesley House

résumé

Reunion: capitalize when referring to Smith Reunions.

riding stable, Smith College Riding Stable

room and board: Use "housing and meals" when referring to Smith.

rooms: Capitalize official room names on campus (Neilson Library Browsing Room) but use lowercase when they are simply locations or informal names (Ainsworth lounge). When in doubt, use lowercase.

S

satisfactory/unsatisfactory grading option; S/U grading option (on second reference only)

scholar: Capitalize when part of a named scholarship (Ada Comstock Scholar, Fulbright Scholar)

School for Social Work, SSW (on second reference)

Scott Gymnasium; Scott gym

seasons: Use lowercase (fall, spring, winter).

semesters: Use lowercase (fall semester, first semester, interterm).

senior class gift, senior class speaker

Seven Sisters: "Sister Colleges" is preferred, since there are no longer seven (unless used in a historical context).

Smith College Archives, College Archives, the archives

Smith College Conference Center (formerly the Smith College Club)

Smith College Medal, Smith College medalist

The Smith Fund (formerly the Smith Alumnae and Parents Fund) Yes, the article is capitalized.

Smith Scholars Program; Smith Scholars

Sophomore Push; Sophomore Push Committee

Spinelli Center for Quantitative Learning

sports-related terms

All-American (n. or adj.); Easterns, nationals, regionals; NCAA divisions use roman numerals (Smith's teams are Division III); Region I; varsity eight (crew). See AP Stylebook for a comprehensive listing.

Staff Council

state names: Spell out in text, except when used in conjunction with a city, county or town (e.g., She was born in Massachusetts in 1960; She was born in Northampton, Mass., in 1960). Set off state names with commas before and after when used after a city in a sentence. Note: Use the two-letter postal abbreviations only with full addresses and ZIP codes.

Stoddard Hall auditorium

student activities fee

Student Events Committee (formerly the Recreation or Rec Council)

Student Financial Services (formerly Office of Financial Aid)

Student Government Association (SGA), SGA Cabinet, SGA Judicial Board

study abroad: Smith Programs Abroad is now the official name for the Smith programs in Florence, Geneva, Hamburg and Paris (formerly "Junior Year Abroad"). "Junior Year Abroad" should be used only in a historical context.

T

telephone numbers: Use hyphens with area code: 413-584-2700. (This is a change in Smith style because of cell phone use, which often requires area codes.) See also extension.

theatre: Use this spelling when referring to the department at Smith; Department of Theatre, theatre department. Use the "theater" spelling in generic use, unless the specific organization uses the "–re" spelling.

time of day: Use numbers, eliminate unnecessary zeros, use a.m. and p.m. (lowercase with periods). Use "midnight" and "noon" (lowercase) instead of 12 a.m. and p.m. (8–11:30 a.m.; 7 a.m. to midnight; 8 a.m. to 1 p.m.) Spell out durations used in running text (An eight-hour workday. The class meets at two o'clock.)

titles

The following are brief guidelines. Because italics are preferred for most composition titles, please consult the Chicago Manual of Style for more detailed information. For guidelines on using initial capitalization in headlines and titles, see capitalization.

courses: Course titles should be set in Roman with initial caps.

lectures: The names of individual lectures should be capitalized and set in quotation marks. The lecture series should be capitalized only.

of works

Italicize titles of books, magazines, newspapers, legal cases, films, full-length plays; and paintings, statues, works of art and art exhibitions. See newspaper and magazine titles.

Enclose in quotation marks the titles of individual lectures (but not the name of the lecture series), short stories, poems, songs, booklets, fliers and television series (unless specific episodes are mentioned, then the series title is in italics, episode in quotation marks).

of online sources

websites— initial caps for names of websites. (Facebook, Google, The Huffington Post); articles or titled sections of a website should be set in quotation marks.

blogs— set name in italics; individual blog entries – enclose in quotation marks

online books or journals — Use italics (Oxford English Dictionary Online).

of music

Use quotation marks for song titles; use italics for citing the full work or for long musical compositions. Use capitalization only (and no additional treatment) for titles that are generic descriptions (Concerto for Orchestra, Piano Sonata). Use lowercase abbreviations for opus and number (String Quartet no. 5; Sonata in E-flat, op. 31, no. 3). Capitalize Major and Minor if they appear as part of a title (Fantasy in C Minor). See Chicago Manual for more details.

of people

Capitalize official titles that appear before names (President Kathleen McCartney, Dean of the College Maureen A. Mahoney, Associate Professor June Brown). Lowercase informal descriptive titles and occupational titles used before names (history professor Ellen Richter, department chair Anne Miller).

Use lowercase for titles appearing after names (Kathleen McCartney, president of the college). Use the Smith College Course Catalog to confirm the titles of faculty members. Exceptions: Titles in display (in mastheads and in other headings) or in formal usage (programs and announcements) are often capitalized without regard to these rules. See also academic titles, emerita and religious titles.

Move long titles to follow names whenever possible (Karen Green, assistant professor of theatre).

Use lowercase for titles standing alone (the president, the dean, the director of graduate study).

Titles of Smith college administrators and faculty members are listed in the online Smith College Course Catalog; under "General Information," select "Directory."

T-shirt

transgender: transgender students (not "transgendered")

trustees, Smith College Board of Trustees. Capitalize only when full name is used; otherwise lowercase, even when referring to the Smith board of trustees.

U

United States: spell out when used as a noun, abbreviate the adjectival form (U.S. Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, U.S. currency, an ally of the United States).

university and college names: For universities with several campuses, try to follow the preferred punctuation for each campus (see individual university websites). For example, University of Massachusetts Amherst; University of California, Berkeley; University at Albany, State University of New York. Use shortened names (UMass, MIT) only in informal references. Exception: Mount Holyoke College: do not abbreviate "Mount."

upper-class students/upperclassmen: Avoid these terms. When practical, replace with "returning students" or "upper-level students." Consider using "sophomores, juniors and seniors," if it doesn't seem too wordy.

V

vespers, Christmas vespers

Visiting Year at Smith (not Visiting Student Program)

W

Web: Capitalize when using alone as a separate term: Web page; Lowercase when combined with another word: website, webcam.

Web addresses: Cite only the name of the server in Web addresses. Begin the URL with "www." (It is not necessary to use the protocol "http://") Set web addresses in Roman (no quotation marks, italics or boldface).

Web pages See also titles of online sources.

William Allan Neilson Library (Note the spelling of the middle name.)

Program for the Study of Women and Gender: formerly women's studies

work-study, Federal Work-Study Program, work-study students

Z

ZIP code