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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Examples

Word for Word | Paraphrasing

Example 2 of 5

A paraphrased example must be cited. You cite a paraphrased example as you would a word-for-word quote. Paraphrasing is a condensed version of another author's work, or putting the author's words into your own words.

Read the example carefully!

Original Source Material:  During the last decade, there has been a shift from "instructivist" approaches towards "constructivist" approaches in the field of instructional design. Instructivist approaches reflect the belief that the role of knowledge is basically to represent the real world. Meaning is eventually determined by this real world and [is] thus external to the understander.

Source: MerriŽnboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Plagiarized Version Correct Version

Over the last ten years, there has been a marked change from "instructivist" points of view to "constructivist" points of view among instructional designers. Instructivist points of view hold the belief that the role of knowledge is fundamentally to represent the real world. In this view, meaning is determined by the real world and is therefore external to the learner.

References: MerriŽnboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Instructivists hold that the "real world," external to individuals, can be represented as knowledge and determines what will be understood by individuals. This view has been shifting to a constructivist view over the past decade (MerriŽnboer, 1997).

References: MerriŽnboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Explanation: This example has been plagiarized. The student has substituted synonyms for many words in the passage, but has not changed the structure of the text and has used another person's ideas without crediting that person for them.

Explanation: This example has been paraphrased and the original author has been credited for those ideas. The student has cited the source of the ideas appropriately, and included the source in the reference list.

Examples 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5



Credits

This tutorial site was developed by the Instructional Systems Technology Department in the School of Education at Indiana University Bloomington to offer students a chance to learn to recognize plagiarism. The Smith College Information Literacy Team is grateful for permission to use this tutorial as part of its program.

  • Content Design: Elizabeth Boling and Theodore Frick
  • Instructional Development and Formative Evaluation: Meltem Albayrak-Karahan, Joseph Defazio, Noriko Matsumura
   
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