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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Plagiarism Test


Please note: If the student version contains BOTH word-for-word and paraphrasing plagiarism, you should check word-for-word.
In the cases below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Item 1

Original Source Material Student Version

The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated - and interesting - is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Systems, including both business systems, and educational systems, are actually very simple. The main idea is that systems have parts that fit together to make a whole. What is interesting is how those parts are connected together.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 2

Original Source Material Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction (Tripp & Bichelmeyer, 1990).

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 3

Original Source Material Student Version

The study of learning derives from essentially two sources. Because learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, the first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things.... The second source in which modern learning theory is rooted concerns the nature and representation of mental life.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

The study of learning derives from essentially two sources. The first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things. The second source concerns the nature and representation of mental life.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 4

Original Source Material Student Version

The technological tools available today for creating computer-based learning materials are incredibly more powerful than those introduced just a few years ago. We can make our own movies with camcorders in our homes; we can publish our own books. Soon teachers and students will be able to use computer-video technology to produce their own learning materials. All it takes is time, know-how, and some funds.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Computers are so powerful that K-12 educators and students are now able to produce their own multimedia and Web-based learning materials. They just need to take the time required to learn to use the authoring tools and related technologies such as digital cameras and camcorders.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 5

Original Source Material Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Does knowledge exist outside of, or separate from, the individual who knows? Constructivists hold that human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction (Gredler, 2001).

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 6

Original Source Material Student Version

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else - perhaps the director of training - to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will "solve the problem." And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem.... The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When major changes are initiated in organizations, "... there is often the implicit assumption that training will 'solve the problem.' And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem." (Dormant, 1986, p. 238).

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 7

Original Source Material Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge is a human construction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 8

Original Source Material Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

We need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories. Such theories will help educators and trainers to meet needs that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity. Instructional-design theory must involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 9

Original Source Material Student Version

Instructional designers typically employ models to guide their day-to-day work. Due to the increased practice of the systematic design of instruction in a growing number of settings, available models become more and more proliferated, focusing on particular types and contexts of learning, particular groups of learners or designers, or particular instructional units (either whole curricula or individual modules or lessons.)

The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes.

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

"The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes" (van Merriënboer, 1997, p. 2), so process models proliferate because more and more designers generate models that focus on specific contexts, learners, or even units of instruction.

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



Item 10

Original Source Material Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur, it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism
Paraphrasing plagiarism
This is not plagiarism



 


Credits

This tutorial site was developed by the Instructional Systems Technology Department in the School of Education at Indiana University Bloomington to offer students a chance to learn to recognize plagiarism. The Smith College Information Literacy Team is grateful for permission to use this tutorial as part of its program.

   
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