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Faculty & Staff

Steven A. Williams

Gates Professor of Biology & Biochemistry

email Send E–mail office Office: Ford Hall 113 phone Phone: 585–3826

Steven A. Williams earned his Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis.

My laboratory focuses on research designed to elucidate the molecular biology of the parasites that cause elephantiasis and African river blindness. Most of our research relates in one way or another to the goal of eliminating these diseases that afflict 200 million people worldwide. We also study animal parasites that infect endangered wildlife.

 

The following areas of research are actively ongoing in my laboratory:

William's lab website: http://sophia.smith.edu/blog/ sawlab/

Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design. Pilotte, N, Papaiakovou M, Grant JR, Bierwert L, Llewellyn S, McCarthy J, Williams SA. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. March 2016. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004578

A Novel Xenomonitoring Technique Using Mosquito Excreta/Feces for the Detection of Filarial Parasites and Malaria. Pilotte N, Zaky WI, Abrams BP, Dave D. Chadee and Williams SA. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. April 20, 2016. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004641

Absence of the Filarial Endosymbiont Wolbachia in Seal Heartworm (Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) but Evidence of Ancient Lateral Gene Transfer. Keroack CD, Wurster JI, Decker CG, Slatko BE, Foster JM and Williams SA. J Parasitology, 2016 Feb (Epub ahead of print).

Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of the Effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone on the Human Filarial Parasite Brugia malayi. Mhashilkar AS, Adapa SR, Jiang RH, Williams SA, Zaky W, Slatko BE, Luck AN, Moorhead AR, Unnasch TR. Int J Parasitol. 2016 Feb 16. pii: S0020-7519(16)00039-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2016.01.005.

The Effect of In Vitro Cultivation on the Transcriptome of Adult Brugia malayi. Ballesteros C, Tritten L, O'Neill M, Burkman E, Zaky WI, Xia J, Moorhead A, Williams SA, Geary TG. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Jan 4;10(1):e0004311. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004311. eCollection 2016 Jan.

Time for T? Immunoinformatics addresses vaccine design for neglected tropical and emerging infectious diseases. Terry FE, Moise L, Martin RF, Torres M, Pilotte N, Williams SA, De Groot AS. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015 Jan;14(1):21-35. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2015.955478. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Molecular xenomonitoring using mosquitoes to map lymphatic filariasis after mass drug administration in American Samoa. Schmaedick MA, Koppel AL, Pilotte N, Torres M, Williams SA, Dobson SL, Lammie PJ, Won KY. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug 14;8(8):e3087. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003087. eCollection 2014 Aug.

A TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Pilotte N, Torres M, Tomaino FR, Laney SJ, Williams SA. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013 May;189(1-2):33-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2013.05.001. Epub 2013 May 10.

A multicenter evaluation of diagnostic tools to define endpoints for programs to eliminate bancroftian filariasis. Gass K, Beau de Rochars MV, Boakye D, Bradley M, Fischer PU, Gyapong J, Itoh M, Ituaso-Conway N, Joseph H, Kyelem D, Laney SJ, Legrand AM, Liyanage TS, Melrose W, Mohammed K, Pilotte N, Ottesen EA, Plichart C, Ramaiah K, Rao RU, Talbot J, Weil GJ, Williams SA, Won KY, Lammie P. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Jan;6(1):e1479. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001479. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

The NIH-NIAID Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center. Michalski ML, Griffiths KG, Williams SA, Kaplan RM, Moorhead AR. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Nov;5(11):e1261. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001261. Epub 2011 Nov 29. Review.

A Community-Based Study of Factors Associated with Continuing Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Leogane, Haiti. Boyd A, Won KY, McClintock SK, Donovan CV, Laney SJ, Williams SA, Pilotte N, Streit TG, Beau de Rochars MV, Lammie PJ. 2010 PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(3): e640. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000640.

Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti L3 Larvae in Mosquitoes: A Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay Evaluating Infection and Infectivity. Laney SJ, Ramzy RMR, Helmy HH, Farid HA, Ashour AA, Weil GJ, Williams SA. 2010 PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(2): e602. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000602.

Immunisation with a Multivalent, Subunit Vaccine Reduces Patent Infection in a Natural Bovine Model of Onchocerciasis during Intense Field Exposure. Makepeace BL, Jensen SA, Laney SJ, Nfon CK, Njongmeta LM, Tanya VN, Williams SA, Bianco AE, Trees AJ. 2009 PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3(11): e544. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000544.

Heritable factors play a major role in determining host responses to Wuchereria bancrofti infection in an isolated South Pacific island population. Cuenco KT, Ottesen EA, Williams SA, Nutman TB, Steel C. J Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 15;200(8):1271-8.

The Impact of Repeated Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Diethylcarbamazine Plus Albendazole on Bancroftian Filariasis in Papua New Guinea. Weil GJ, Kastens W, Susapu M, Laney SJ, Williams SA, King CL, Kazura JW, Bockarie MJ.. 2008 PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2(12): e344. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000344

A Reverse Transcriptase-PCR Assay for Detecting Filarial Infective Larvae in Mosquitoes. S.J. Laney, C.J. Buttaro, S. Visconti, N. Pilotte, R.M. Ramzy, G.J. Weil, and Williams SA. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2: e251 (1-9), 2008.

Determinants of Success in National Programs to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: a Perspective Identifying Essential Elements and Research Needs. Kyelem D, Biswas G, Bockarie MJ, Bradley MH, El-Setouhy M, Fischer PU, Henderson RH, Kazura JW, Lammie PJ, Njenga SM, Ottesen EA, Ramaiah KD, Richards FO, Weil GJ, Williams SA. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 79: 480-484, 2008.

Human Cardiac-Specific cDNA Array for Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Sex-Related Differences. G.E. Haddad, L.J. Saunders, S.D. Crosby, M. Carles, F. del Monte, K. King, M.R. Bristow, F.G. Spinale, T.E. Macgillivray, M.J. Semigran, G.W. Dec, S.A. Williams, R.J. Hajjar, J.K. Gwathmey. Physiol Genomics, 33: 267-77, 2008.

An Unidentified Filarial Species and its Impact on Fitness in Wild Populations of the Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes). S.M. Wisely, J. Howard, S.A. Williams, O. Bain, R.M. Santymire, K.D. Bardsley, and E.S. Williams. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 44: 53-64, 2008.

Draft Genome of the Filarial Nematode Parasite Brugia malayi. E. Ghedin…S.A. Williams, et al. Science, 317: 1756-1760, 2007.

Seroprevalence of Dengue in Trinidad Using Rapid Test Kits: A Cord Blood Survey. C.A. Campbell, A. George, R.A. Salas, S.A. Williams, R. Doon, D.D. Chadee. Acta Tropica, 101: 153-158, 2007.

A Real-Time PCR-based Assay for Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in Blood and Mosquitoes. R.U. Rao, L.J. Atkinson, R.M. Ramzy, H. Helmy, M.J. Bockarie, M. Susapu, S.J. Laney, S.A. Williams. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 74: 826-832, 2006.

Characterization of a Novel Filarial Serine Protease Inhibitor, Ov-SPI-1, from Onchocerca volvulus, with Potential Multifunctional Roles During Development of the Parasite. L.Ford, D.B. Guiliano, Y. Oksov, A.K. Debnath, J. Liu, S.A. Williams, M.L. Blaxter, and S. Lustigman. J. Biol. Chem, 280: 40845-40856, 2005.

Profiling of Gender-Regulated Gene Transcripts in the Filarial Nematode Brugia malayi by cDNA Oligonucleotide Array Analysis. B.W. Li, A.C. Rush, S.D. Crosby, W.C. Warren, S.A. Williams, M. Mitreva, and G.J. Weil. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 143: 49-57, 2005.

Filarial Genomics. S.A. Williams. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., S71: 37-40, 2004.

Towards a strategic plan for research to support the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Summary of Immediate needs and opportunities for research on lymphatic filariasis. E.A. Ottesen, G.J. Weil, P.J. Lammie, M.H. Bradley, V. Kumaraswami, D.G. Addiss, C. Mackenzie, M. Malecela-Lazaro, N. Twum-Danso, J.O. Gyapong, K.Y. Dadzie, M.G. Basanez, F. Richards, T. Burkot, M. Bockarie, D.A. McFarland, L.C. Barrett, C.L. King, J.W. Kazura, A. Hoerauf, C. Steel, and S.A. Williams. Am. J. of Trop. Med. and Hyg., S71: 3-36, 2004.

Development and Standardization of a Rapid, PCR-based Method for the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Mosquitoes, for Xenomonitoring the Human Prevalence of bancroftian filariasis. S.A. Williams, S.J. Laney, L.A. Bierwert, L.J. Saunders, D.A. Boakye, P. Fischer, D. Goodman, H. Helmy, S.L. Hoti, V. Vasuki, P.J. Lammie, C. Plichart, R.M. Ramzy, E.A. Ottesen. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 96: S41-46, 2002.

The River Blindness Genome Project. S.A. Williams, S.J. Laney, M. Lizotte-Waniewski, L.A. Bierwert, and T.R. Unnasch. Trends in Parasitol., 18: 86-90, 2002.

Filarial Genomics: Gene Discovery and Gene Expression. S.A. Williams and S.J. Laney; In: World Class Parasites: Volume 5, The Filaria. Ed. T.R. Klei and T.V. Rajan, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA., p. 31-42, 2002.

Xenomonitoring of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as a Guide for Detecting the Presence or Absence of Lymphatic Filariasis: a Preliminary Protocol for Mosquito Sampling. D.D. Chadee, S.A. Williams, E.A. Ottesen. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 96: S47-53, 2002.

Quantification of PCR Amplification Products of Brugia HhaI Repeat DNA Using a Semiautomated Q-PCR System U.R. Rao, S.A. Williams, and T.R. Klei. Mol. Cell Probes, 16: 13-23, 2002.

Evaluation of SspI Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti Infection in Field-Collected Culex quinquefasciatus and its Application in the Transmission Studies of Lymphatic Filariasis. S.L. Hoti, K.P. Patra, V. Vasuki, M.W. Lizotte, V.R. Hariths, N. Sushma, K. Gunasekaran, K.D. Ramaiah, P. Vanamail, T. Mariappan, and S.A. Williams. Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift fur Ange Wandte Entomologie. 126: 417-421, 2002.

Rapid PCR-based Detection of Brugia malayi DNA from Blood Spots by DNA Detection Test Strips. S. Kluber, T. Supali, S.A. Williams, E. Liebau, P. Fischer. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95: 169-170, 2001.

Detection of Brugia malayi in Laboratory and Wild-caught Mansonioides Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Using HhaI PCR Assay. S.L. Hoti, V. Vasuki, M.W. Lizotte, K.P. Patra, G. Ravi, P. Vanamail, A. Manonmani, S. Sabesan, K. Krishnamoorthy, and S.A. Williams. Bull. Entomol. Res., 91: 87-92, 2001.

Application of a Polymerase Chain Reaction-ELISA to Detect Wuchereria bancrofti in Pools of Wild-Caught Anopheles punctulatus in a Filariasis Control Area in Papua New Guinea. M.J. Bockarie, P. Fischer, S.A. Williams, P.A. Zimmerman, L. Griffin, M.P. Alpers, J.W. Kazura. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 62: 363-367, 2000.

Identification of Potential Vaccine and Drug Target Candidates by Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis and Immunoscreening of Onchocerca volvulus Larval cDNA Libraries. M. Lizotte-Waniewski, W. Tawe, D.B. Guiliano, W. Lu, J. Liu, S.A. Williams, S. Lustigman. Infect. Immun., 68: 3491-3501, 2000.

The Filarial Genome Project: Analysis of the Nuclear, Mitochondrial and Endosymbiont Genomes of Brugia malayi. S.A. Williams, M.R. Lizotte-Waniewski, J. Foster, D. Guiliano, J. Daub, A.L. Scott, B. Slatko, M.L. Blaxter. Int. J. Parasitol., 30: 411-419, 2000.

The Genomes of Onchocerca volvulus. T.R.Unnasch and S.A.Williams. Int. J. Parasitol., 30: 543- 552, 2000.

Detection of DNA of Nocturnally Periodic Brugia malayi in Night and Day Blood Samples by a Polymerase Chain Reaction-ELISA-Based Method Using an Internal Control DNA. P. Fischer, T. Supali, H. Wibowo, I. Bonow and S.A. Williams. Am. J. Trop. Med. and Hygiene, 62: 291-296, 2000.

Helminth Genome Analysis: the Current Status of the Filarial and Schistosome Genome Projects. S. A. Williams and D.A. Johnston. Parasitology, 118: S19-S38, 1999.

Patterns of Onchocerca volvulus Recombinant Antigen Recognition in a Bovine Model of Onchocerciasis. S.P. Graham, Y. Wu, K. Henkle-Duehrsen, S. Lustigman, T.R. Unnasch, G. Braun, S.A. Williams, J. McCarthy, A.J. Trees and A.E. Bianco. Parasitology, 119: 603-612, 1999.

Diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti Infection by the Polymerase Chain Reaction Employing Patient’s Sputum. I. Abbasi, J. Githure, J.J. Ochola, R. Agure, D.K. Koech, R.M. Ramzy, S.A. Williams, and J. Hamburger. Parasitol. Res., 85: 844-849, 1999.

Chemiluminescent Detection of Sequential DNA Hybridizations to High Density, Filter Arrayed cDNA Libraries: a Subtraction Method for Novel Gene Discovery. D. Guiliano, M. Ganatra, J. Ware, J. Parrot, J. Daub, L. Moran, H. Brennecke, J.M. Foster, T. Supali, M. Blaxter, A.L. Scott, S. A. Williams, and B.E. Slatko. Biotechniques, 27: 146-152, 1999.

Deep Within the Filarial Genome: an Update on the Progress of the Filarial Genome Project. The Filarial Genome Project: S.A. Williams, Parasitology Today, 15: 219-224, 1999.

Development of a Quantitative, Competitive Polymerase Chain Reaction-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. P. Fischer, X. Liu, M. Lizotte-Waniewski, I.H. Kamal, R.M.R. Ramzy and S.A. Williams. Parasitol. Res., 85: 176-183, 1999.

PCR-ELISA for the Detection of Brugia malayi Infection Using Finger-Prick Blood. N. Rahmah, A. Noor Ashikin, A. Khairul Anuar, R.H. Tengku Ariff, B. Abdullah, G.T. Chan, and S.A. Williams. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 92: 404-406, 1998.

Detection of the Filarial Parasite Mansonella streptocerca in Skin Biopsies by a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Assay. P. Fischer, D.W. Buttner, J. Bamuhiiga, and S.A. Williams. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 58: 816-820, 1998.

Thioredoxin Peroxidase (TPx) from Onchocerca volvulus: a Major Hydrogen Peroxide Detoxifying Enzyme in Filarial Parasites. W. Lu, G.L. Egerton, A.E. Bianco and S.A. Williams. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 91: 221-235, 1998.

The immunodominant Brugia malayi paramyosin as a marker of current infection with Wuchereria bancrofti adult worms. S. Langy, C. Plichart, P. Luquiaud, S.A. Williams and L. Nicolas. Infection and Immunity, 66: 2854-2858, 1998.

A Unified Nomenclature for Filarial Genes. M.L. Blaxter, D.B. Guiliano, A.L. Scott, and S.A. Williams. Parasitology Today, 13: 416-417, 1997.

The Filarial Genome Project. Blaxter, M.L., J. Daub, M. Waterfall, D. Guiliano, S.A. Williams, K. Jayaraman, R. Ramzy, B. Slatko and A. Scott. COST 819, The Commission of the European Community, Brussels, 1997.

A Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Assay for Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Human Blood and Culex pipiens. R.M.R. Ramzy, H.A. Farid, I.H. Kamal, G.H. Ibrahim, Z.S. Morsy, R. Faris, G.H. Weil, S.A. Williams, and A.M. Gad. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene., 91: 156-160, 1997.

Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in Patients’ Sputum by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. I. Abbasi, J. Hamburger, J. Githure, J.J. Ochola, R. Agure, D.K. Koech, R. Ramzy, A. Gad, and S.A. Williams. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene., 90: 531-532, 1996.

Evaluation of a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Assay for Diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti Infection. J.S. McCarthy, M. Zhong, R. Gopinath, E.A. Ottesen, S.A. Williams, and T.B. Nutman. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 173: 1510-1514, 1996.

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Blood Samples from French Polynesia. S.A. Williams, L. Nicolas, M. Lizotte-Waniewski, C. Plichart, P. Luquiaud, L.N. Nguyen, and J.P. Moulia-Pelat. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene., 90: 384-387, 1996.

Parasite Genome Projects. S.A. Williams and D.J. Kemp. In: The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Molecular Medicine, VCH Publishers Inc., New York, NY. p. 306-312, 1996.

Identification of Novel Sequences and Codon Usage in Strongyloides stercoralis. T.A. Moore, S. Ramachandran, A.A. Gam, F.A. Neva, W. Lu, L. Saunders, S.A.Williams, and T.B. Nutman. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 79: 243-248, 1996.

A Cyclosporin A-sensitive Small Molecular Weight Cyclophilin of Filarial Parasites. D. Ma, X. Hong, N. Raghavan, A.L. Scott, J.S. McCarthy, T.B. Nutman, S. A. Williams, and C.K.S. Carlow. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 79: 235-241, 1996.

Genes Expressed in Brugia malayi Infective Third Stage Larvae. M.L. Blaxter, N. Raghavan, I. Ghosh, D. Guiliano, W. Lu, S.A. Williams, B. Slatko, and A.L. Scott. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 77: 77-93, 1996.

A PCR Assay for the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Blood. M. Zhong, J. McCarthy, L. Bierwert, M. Lizotte-Waniewski, S. Chanteau, T.B. Nutman, E.A. Ottesen, and S.A. Williams. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 54: 357-363, 1996.

Chitinase Genes Expressed by Infective Larvae of the Filarial Nematodes, Acanthocheilonema vitae and Onchocerca volvulus. Y. Wu, R. Adam, S.A. Williams, and A.E. Bianco. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 75: 207-219, 1996.

Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti Larvae in Pools of Mosquitoes by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. S. Chanteau, P. Luquiaud, A.-B. Failloux, and S.A. Williams. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene., 88: 665-666, 1994.

Construction of cDNA Libraries from Limiting Amounts of Material. J.R. McCarrey and S.A. Williams. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 5: 34-39, 1994.

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection of Brugia malayi in blood. M.R. Lizotte, T. Supali, F. Partono, and S.A. Williams. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 51: 314-321, 1994.

Molecular Phylogenetic Studies on Filarial Parasites Based on 5S Ribosomal Spacer Sequences. H. Xie, O. Bain, and S.A. Williams. Parasite, 1: 141-151, 1994.

Molecular Phylogenetic Studies of the Genus Brugia. H. Xie, O. Bain, and S.A. Williams. Parasite, 1: 255-260, 1994.

Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi: Synthetic Biotin Labeling of Oligonucleotide Probes for Use in Species-Specific Detection Assays. S.A. Williams, C.B. Poole, D. Landry, J. Glover, and L.A. McReynolds. Experimental Parasitology, 77: 235-245, 1993.

Recent Advances in the Application of Molecular Biology in Filariasis. L.A. McReynolds, C. Poole, Y. Hong, S.A. Williams, F. Partono, and J. Bradley. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 24: 55-63, 1993.

A Proline-Rich Structural Protein of the Surface Sheath of Larval Brugia Filarial Nematode Parasites. M.E. Selkirk, M. Yazdanbakhsh, D. Freedman, M.L. Blaxter, E. Cookson, R.E. Jenkins, and S.A. Williams. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266: 11002-11008, 1991.

Diagnosis of Filariasis with DNA Probes. In "Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology" (R.C. Tilton and A. Balows, Eds). L.A. McReynolds, C.B. Poole, and S.A. Williams. Springer-Verlag Press, 1991.

Filarial DNA Probes in Jakarta. L.A. McReynolds, C.B. Poole, and S.A. Williams. Parasitology Today, 7: 65-67, 1991.

A Rapid DNA Assay for the Species-Specific Detection and Quantification of Brugia in Blood Samples. C.B. Poole and S.A. Williams. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 40: 129-136, 1990.

A Field Study Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to Screen for Brugia Microfilariae in Human and Animal Blood. S.A. Williams, J. Glover, S. Szabo, D. Landry, L.A. McReynolds, T. Supali, and F. Partono. Bull. Health Research, 17: 80-87, 1989.

Detection of Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi Parasites by Biotinylated DNA Probes. S.A. Williams, T. Supali, C.B. Poole, J. Glover, L.A. McReynolds, and F. Partono. Bull. Health Studies, 17: 95-97, 1989.

Species-Specific Oligonucleotide Probes for the Identification of Human Filarial Parasites. S.A. Williams, S.M. DeSimone, and L.A. McReynolds. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 28: 163-170, 1988.

Development of DNA Probes to Identify and Speciate Filarial Parasites. S.A. Williams, S.M. DeSimone, C.B. Poole, and L.A. McReynolds. In "Molecular Paradigms for Eradicating Helminthic Parasites" (A. MacInnis, Ed.). Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, NY, 1987.

Highly Repeated DNA Sequences as Species-Specific Probes for Brugia. W.F. Piessens, L.A. McReynolds, and S.A. Williams. Parasitology Today, 3: 378-380, 1987.

The Use of DNA Sequencing Reactions as Probes for Southern Blots, Dot Blots and Colony Hybridizations. C.O. Card, S.A. Williams, L.S. Moran, C.B. Poole, and B.E. Slatko. Biotechniques, 5: 302-307, 1987.

The Genomic Complexity and Tubulin Gene of Dirofilaria immitis. C.V. Maina, A.G. Grandea, L.T.K. Tuyen, N. Asikin, S.A. Williams, and L.A. McReynolds. In "Molecular Paradigms for Eradicating Helminthic Parasites" (A. MacInnis, Ed.). Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, NY, 1987.

Sequencing in the Fast Lane: a Rapid Protocol for [35S]-dATP Dideoxy DNA Sequencing. S.A. Williams, B.E. Slatko, L.S. Moran, and S.M. DeSimone. Biotechniques, 4: 138-147, 1986.

Cloning and Comparison of Repeated DNA Sequences from the Human Filarial Parasite Brugia malayi and the Animal Parasite Brugia pahangi. L.A. McReynolds, S.M. DeSimone, and S.A. Williams. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 83: 797-801, 1986.

Cloning the Gene for the Malolactic Fermentation of Wine from Lactobacillus delbrueckii in Escherichia coli and Yeasts. S.A. Williams, R.A. Hodges, T.L. Strike, R. Snow, and R.E. Kunkee. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 47: 288-293, 1984.

Qualitative and Quantitative Differences in Learning Associated with Multiple-Choice Testing. K. Fisher, S.A. Williams, and J. Roth. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 18: 449-464, 1981.